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Donn F. Draeger 



Donn F, Draeger 





Boston, EurUrni. Vririi»m, l<iLvi» 

Fubhidtcd by Tunic Publishing 

Copyright € 1972 byQmde* F- Tunic Publishing Co., Inc. 

All rijihrs mended 

LCC C*nl No. 73-lBZtiO 
ISBN: 9^8-1-4629-0509-6 [ebook) 

Rfm Tunic edition, 1972 

■Hirvi paperback edit*w, 1992 

Fifth prirituig. 20C50 

Printed in Singapore 


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author's foreword 


Chapter I i Preliminary Background 

Proiohisioric and Historic 17 
Technical Rationale 30 

Chapter 2 1 Java and Madura 

Pcntjak-silat 41 
Kuntnc BO 

Other Weapons and Systems &6 

Chapter 3 : Sumatra, Nias, Mcntawal lilunh, and 
the Riouw Archipelago 

Background 109] an 124 
Atjeh 151 

Riouw Archipelago 155 

Batak 155 

The Cciates 158 

Mcntawai Islands and Nias 160 

Kuntao 163 

Chapter 4 : Ball 

Pent|ak-tilat 165 

Ot her Weapons and Systems I BO 









Chapter 5 t The Lesser Sundas 

IVulj^k-KiLiL anil Kunlun 3 85 
Giber Weapons and Syrlrms tfl5 

Chapter § I The Celebes 199 

Background 1 ' i'H 
Bugis and Makassarrsn 204 
Kuritnij in Makassar 20G 
BajaU 210 
Toradjs 21; 4 

Minaliasa Inhabitant! 222 

Chapter 7 : The Moluccas 227 

Background 227 
Aborigines 23 E 
I'rtiljak-sUal 23tt 




index 251 

PEOPLE, TH!hij-:s- s RACES, DEITIES 253 




L Supalokun images of Sernarang Temple, Central Java 22 

2. Relief carvings from Borobudur arid Pramhanan 24 . 25 

3. Standard vea ponry of penl j ak - t i Ear 35 

4. Localized penliak-silat weaponry 37 

5. Percussion accom pan i men! lo penijik [raining 36 

6. Fentjak-Like nwyenents in fAFidai dance form 39 

7 . Saucer dance by Panai si Eat exponents 32 

MO- E'jiimande ityl* iilaii deep crouch pasture, stamping, and hand 

action* 43 

I I, Tjimande style use of guJok 44 

12, Blocking hi I he Tjimande si vie 45 

13, Blocking in the Tjikalong style 45 

14, 15. Tjingkrik style silat: attack, and anuncihg scrtipok posture 46 , 47 

EG 18. KwiLang sjJat tec hniques: delrnw against pisau, tjabang vs. 

loya, kowliu m vs. gntok 42 

E ( J 22. PPSI: kujuogl and iheaih, afbir and its use, and old and 

new forms of paku 50 , 51 

23, L'sc of roya in f PJ>I silai 52 

24, Spec Lai weapons of Pri*ai Sakti silat 53 

25, Evasion and kicking tactics in Setia Mali silal 55 

2b. Bima dial postures 56 

27. I fan Badjam, founder cifTapak Sutji 57 

2-B 31, Lapalt Sutji; peutjak action, outdoor (raining, Japanese 

sword, and segn 56 , 513 

32. Tjaluk of Seiia Had Tcratc 61 

33 3b. Delima sdai : kicking t(-c hnk|(J£, pt'daug, loya action,, and 

pedang training 64 , 65 

37 41. Ihrlima silat: loya vs, pedang, pcd&ng VJ. empty-hand 

action, girts training, and rantc and bs USc t>6, 67 

42. R r Mi S. Dirdjoalmodjo, founder of Perisai Djpi Ltt 69 


43, 44. Periaat Diri silat: evasion and counterattack, and use of 

Chinese swords 71 

45, 46. Peris*! Diri silat; special weapons, and area of concentration 

of attack 73 

47, 48. Maduran Famuf iilat Stance and kick 75 

49-51. Pamur silat: tjabang, Mwlunm weapons, and arit used with 

pisau 76 , 77 

52-55. Pamur silat: single aril technique, li*e of kelewang, Maduran 

kudi, and special Maduran weapons 78 , 79 

56. Empty-hand kunlan technique 81 

57. Standard weaponry qf kuntao 82 , 83 

SB. Shangung kuniao Style left stance 85 

59. Fukien kuntao style frontal stance 85 

60, 61- Javanese kris blade types, and kris and shealh parts 89 

62, Javanese carved wooden kris handles 91 

63-65. Javanese kris sheath types, and early possible kris prototypes 93 

66. Test patterns from kris blades 96 

67, 6®. Gripping and wearing the kris 97 , 98 

69, 70, Basic types of Javanese knife and sword blades, spearheads 

and shifts 100 , 101 

71, Javanese spearheads in the Museum fjono Boedojn Sekaien 102 

72 , Tjambuk chemeti 103 

73, Petjat of Kediri Udung (Tibari) 103 

74, 75, Porbikawa system; empty-hand action, and u« of toy* 105 

76-76. Okol grappling: beginning a bout, osuto-otoshi and woi- 

nafte tactics 105 , 106 

79, Mcnangkabau warrior 125 

SO, fll. Mcnangkabau ptsatl brlari, kris and sheaths 126 

B2-8B, Sumatran weapons: kris pangang and sheath, tnmbak lada, 

lading and shealh, bcladAu, KWHT, sakin, and karambit 127 , 128 
69, Menangkabau sabit agricultural tools. and weapons 129 

90, 91. Menangkabau silat ley tactics, and use ofhinds and arms 132 , 133 

92. Tiger-style tactics of Harimau silal 134 , 135 

93. Sandang silat vs, Sterlak stlal 137 

94-96. Pauh si lair ‘‘imaginary square, 51 locked thumb, and center¬ 
line Largely 138 

97, Pam silat defense 141 

96, 99, Ktamango dial: thigh dapping, and deceptive forward step 143 

100. iTemonatrition of Lin Lit u silat 144 

101. Demonstration of Sawi iilat 145 

102, Sterlak silat attack, Lintau silftl response, and Sawi silal 

counterattack 146 , 147 

103, 164. Patai silal: techniques, and use of gontar 149 , 150 

105, 166. Atjeh tentjang and sheath*, and other weapons 152 154 

107-109, Batik weapons: body ranjau, jouov and kapak 156 

110. fSatak raut and sheath 158 

111. RngJUia seven-fool spears 161 

112. Fulo Pagi parang 161 

113 II6. Naas isLand: spears, parang, warrior before combat, and 

tulo-tulo war dance 162 


!17r Empty-hind kuntao (raining, Padaiig, Sumatra 164 

3 18. Balinese kris danrr Jftfj 

119, Rants of Tridharnia silat 168 

120-125, Hhakn Negara aiJat: ItchniqUH, posture, a ruse, ceruer 

of gaze, and "floating foot" 169 171 

128 3 30. Bhakli Negara si3at' icsc of lOya, tjabang, pisau., and 

pedang; and special weapons 173, 174 

131. Center of gate in Eis<i sil&l 176 

[ 32-134, Balinese Perisai Diri silat: empty-hand techniques, 

aj'hJr and (Oya, and (ekken v.s. armed ilMilanl 177-179 

135. Balinese Ende 179 

tdfip 3 57, Balinese bliidrd weapons 180, 181 

138-140. A Balinese kris-smilh, typical krb pasterns, and the 

longest kris blade 162, 183 

141. Ancient Balinese stone images jR$ 

142, 343. Tjatii weaponry and combatants 187, 188 

144. Flores weaponry' J9J 

145. Flores pentjak-idat style 193 

3+6, Tamcng and petjut used in Lombok Endc lilat, 193 

147. Sulat system of Sunibawa 193 

348, Suinkwiin archery competition 194 

149, E50. Bumbawan jousting: armed warrior, and circular tracks 193 

3 51, Saw-toothed grass leaf of Stimba Box 195 

3 52, 133, Sumban warrior; ceremonial war dance, and 

weaponry / 96, 197 

154, Tumorese weaponry 197 

155. Timorese WHJKH1 of unknown name and use 198 

158, 157. Celebes liadik and sheaths, and Bugis and Makassarese 

badik 292 

158, 3 59. Wearing and use afbadik 203 

160. Knives of the Celebes 264 

361. Techniques of Makassarese llmu Si Eat (kuntao) 297 

162. Makassar kuntao weapons 208 

163. Tong Hong Liong demonm taring his kuntao techniques 209 

364. Bajau spears (harpoons) and spearheads 213 

165, 166. Kendari style &i|*l cross^slep, and Bajau parang 213 

167, L68. Toradjan knives, and dua I a Ian buFalo knifo 215 

169-172, Toradjan ubIUkas, spear blades, spear technique, arid 

shields 216, 217 

175-175, luradjan surnpti and poisoned dart, p&diriipah, and 

Pong TiktTs weapons 219 

176, Sdiemba quatskoirbative action 221 

177. Oramese weaponry 232 

I7S. Alefuru armed headhunters performing war dance 236, 237 

179. Sapulidi of Ambnn island 237 

100. Nine-year-old tjahang expert, Husin Karim 239 

181. Karim facing an "enemy rh 240 

182. Pisau tactics practiced by Batumerah villagers 240 

183. Pedang used by Batunxrah wonlan 241 

184. One-legged postures of Hatuku bland pentjak-silat 241 




No Asian nation has come before the world devoid of combative 
skills. The present-day limitative study which lias produced a 
combative horizon extending to only China, Japan, Korea, and 
Okinawa, is an oversight attitude both from the historical and 
technical standpoints. Weapons and fighting arts have been a 
legitimate and prominent part of all Asian cultures. The inter¬ 
relationships among the combative cultures ofaII Asian nations 
are significant to a fuller comprehension of Asian history. 

In Indonesia, weapons and lighting arts arc as old as the 
history of man. There arc yet too many wide gaps between 
historically proven facts and time lo completely understand the 
meanings of the combative culture of this vast and diverse land, 
the world’s largest archipelago. But it is possible to piece to¬ 
gether significant shreds of evidence by which the ancestral 
forms of the modem weapons and fighting arts can be related 
to the modern scene. 

For Indonesians, weapons and fighting arts are life itself. The 
external importance can readily he seen to be practical, but it 
is the inner meanings, the spiritual relationships, which arc most 
closely tied to the cultural achievements of the nation. Indo¬ 
nesian combat ives are vitally linked to cultural attainments and 
are a bridge over which the past can be connected to the present. 

Expressions of Indonesian society such as music, dance forms, 
art;; social customs such as marriage, death honors, cincuinci- 
sion T and tribal law, all arc innately involved with weapons. 
There can be no thorough understanding of Indonesia without 


a substantial investigation of its combalives. Many of the results 
of the investigations which produced the material for this boot 
are not to be considered as conclusions, rather as a series of facts 
and observations which should serve to draw more attention to 
this little-known aspect of Indonesian culture, 

What is contained herein is based on firsthand investigations. 
Three separate expeditions into the country have been made to 
gather facts about Indonesian combative culture. Some prac¬ 
tical experience with the weapons and their means of employ¬ 
ment has also preceded the writing. The general inaccessibility 
of the remote areas visited in gathering the necessary informa¬ 
tion has been a serious deterrent to a more comprehensive survey 
of this nation. The politico-military' situation in Kalimantan 
(Indonesian Borneo) and Irian Karat (West New Guinea) has 
precluded investigations in those areas. Additionally, the wide 
latitude of weapons and fighting arts studied has required a 
preliminary backgrounding in history, art, anthropology, and 
geography which must be understood to a certain degree before 
meaningful interpretations could be made. Thus, more geo¬ 
graphical areas remain to be visited and an even still svidrr 
range of fighting arts must be studied. It is hoped that this 
introductory survey will interest others to enlarge upon it and 
broaden its significance. 

SttW t Bah 

Donn ¥. 



In the compilation cif this manuscript, many persons and organizations 
have been contributors. To name the many hundreds would be an im¬ 
practical! task. I therefore beg to list only those persons most directly 
concerned with the contents and advise that,, while not specifically 
nutingthe many others, this work would not have been possible without 
the cooperation of all. 

Joseph Kadjang Amerta of Denpasar, Kali, has been an inspirational 
guide to my investigations. This scholar’s vast knowledge about Indo¬ 
nesian culture m general and his wealth of knowledge about the comba¬ 
tive culture of that country have contributed significantly to the technical 
scope of this book. Drs. Amir Sutagara and Speksmono of the Indo¬ 
nesian National Museum, Djakarta, have been most considerate and 
helpful, Their professional knowledge and services have been given un¬ 
selfishly, and I am greatly indebted to them for their valuable time and 
for much of the anthropological and historical data herein. Dr. Van de 
Muellcn of Santa Parma University in Jogjakarta was most kind in my 
study of Javanese history; he made the facilities nf that university avail¬ 
able to me. Dr. Irene Roberts of the United States, too, has been a 
source of inspiration for me. Her intimate knowledge of Toradja culture 
provided the background ibr my investigations of their combative lure. 
Tjoa Kheb Kiting, kuniao master teacher in Djakarta, has been most 
helpful in aiding me to discuss die Chinese aspects of Indonesian 

The following persons are gratefully extended my s interest thanks 
and appreciation for their contributions to my study on: 

Java: Mr. and Mrs. Gerard Sik Tjioc The, Colonel Snedarjantn and 
son Bambang; Hciro T. II. S.„ DachJan ELjas, Hadji A. Mochdte* 


ftaJiaria, Rachmad Socronagoru, and Mr. Liern of Djakarta; Alma of 
Funtjak; Djie Siauw Foe of Semarang; Mr. and Mrs.. George Fantouw, 
Ali-habsi, DirdjoaEmpdjo, Moh. Hackman, Dr. and Mrs. Go Yauw 
Liein, Go Socn Bit, Raymond fio, the Tan brothers of Surabaja; 
Mohammed Djocmali, Major S- .Soelaiman, Abu Salim , I fan Badjam, 
and J, Widjihartani of Jogjakarta; R. M, Iman Kussupa Nggt and R. 
Kocswanto of Maduin; Biridpudgar of Fonorogo. 

Bale: M. Swctja, Rudi Watulittgas, P. Ngr. Ardika, Ida Bagui Oka 
Dinwangkara, Made Tjandra, A, Alit* H- Spengler, Hari Bocdjarn Gd. 
Dringgu W\, M. Hindi, Nustal, and Eddie, 

THitClU-tBss; Andi Dengken, Arief Faiminljak, Dr- and Mrs. Iskandar, 
Dr. and Mrs, Konratjtm The Rmg, Tong Hong Liong, Tjip Fho Liang 
Kie, Lie Tjien Jan, Am bo Djctta, C, L. Ruodt, of Makassar] L. T. 
Saranga, F. K, Sarungallo, T, Barung FtoM, and T. S. Sarimgu, of 

Tiif, Moluccas; Mr, and Mrs, W, C- Willis, Professor M. Mariaa, Dr, 
and Mrs. Soiisa, and Danny Latumah ina, of Ambon ;Jw Devin of Burn 
Island; Radjab Kudus, Idris Kiat, Moth Djen Nio, and Mon of Batu- 
merah village; Bupatijltainama (the Lipulatuh) and all the people of 
Kauri a rum village, Ceram. 

Madura: Hasan Hubudin and all the Pamur officials. 

Flores : Jonathan Takalapeto, Victor B, Gonstal, and Martin Lewar, 
Timor; Aneel Lli Tjong Sui and Liem Tjok Seong, 

Fortuouisr 'Timor; Dr. Soeroseo, atid M. Pangaribuan of the IndcH 
nesian Consul, Dili. 

Sumatra: Yusef Munir, So Bon Seng, Amir (lunawan, of Fading; 
Munap Matin Mudo of Bukittitiggi; Cheam Gek Chin, J, E ] h, Hu- 
lauruk, AlikuumA, Hiaw Poh Tinian, Fung Jew Jiri, Gan Ho Lay, 
Sjech Bitrinjin, Hamm Said, and Rasul of Medan. 

To the various Indonesian pextjaA-iiht organisations across the 
breadth and span of the country I must acknowledge the wonderful 
cooperation and attention to my requests involving laborious hours of 
questioning and demonstrations; all csf these groups were most helpful, 
To my good friend William A. Fuller who accompanied me on the 
first expedition (1966), to Quin tin T. G. Chambers and Howard 
Alexander who were my travel companions on ihe second ■ E9tiH), and 
Quintin T. G. Chambers and Joseph Tartaglia on the third (1971) ex¬ 
pedition, my sinccresi gratitude for their voluntary exposure to the 
dangers and hardships of the journey and for their innumerable aids 
and contributions to this book. Finally, my special thanks go out io 
Dr. Benjamin A. Fusam whose meticulous reading of (he manuscript 
made possible a greatly improved text. 






They were servants; 
they fought each other, 

They were equal in valor; 
both became corpses. 

- adji saka 

I Ptotohistoric and Hlgtodg 

java is the cult uni! core of the world's Largest archipelago, Indonesia 
Very little is accurately known ofits ancient history and even its Ir-grncJs 
antedate the first century a.o. Tlius, history, for most Indonesian 
scholars, 1 begins with thr introduction nf the Hindu culture to their 
lands by Adji Malta. 

Adji Saka, a Brahman teacher, came from India to deliver the Java¬ 
nese from the cannibalistic King Mendang Kamubtij whose daily habit 
it was to Least on one of Li is subjects ehnaen at random. Adji ha La rid the 
L'ouiltry of the monstrous ruler; the grateful java nest- urged him to S!t\y 
and rule as king, Adji accepted, but first had to obtain his holy sword 
which he had left hack in India in the safekeeping of a trusted retainer. 

Adji dispatched another retainer to fetch the wonderful sword, but 
in a quarrel between ihr two retainers over the matter nr releasing the 
sword, both wen: slain. The retainer holding the holy blade had been 
ordered by Adji not to deliver it to anyone but his mastery the retainer 
sent to bring (hr sword to Adji would not, in shame, return to his master 
in Java without the sword. 

Adji Saka IS a Symbol of Cultural advancement in terms of Hindu 
standards. 2 Bui long before the Hindu cuLture arrived in Indonesia thr 
prehistoric peoples Living In the archipelago had reached varying do 

1. JU'-irni-d vrhcdjrj such *5 Doctors Amir -S-utagara and Swksmone see- Indonesian 
hulOfy bcqirimng lit lifct? fifth to 'sixth c-ml.11.ric3 A.ft, 

2 . Adji Salta is legend. Hu struggle's with Else cannibal king art; |usably indicative of 
bsiiial rciiaiam-s -pf the [woplr tn Hindu culture. At hiUory shows, Hindu culture won 
111? people ever, and today :■ liulunniin is icnincruiely proud oi that lu'nLa^i 1 . 


gim of vital civilization, Somt; of the worH'^ oldest human remains 
have hern identified on the island of Java. 

During the Palaeolithic period {preTSOW a.ti.), primitive men, such 
ai thuse now identifled as the Pithecanthropus trtclta* were little more 
advanced than the anthropoid ape. The manner of combat of such 
primitives must have largely depended on empty-handed fighting tactics 
augmented by finch natural objects as sticks and stones. More highly 
developed Pleistocene men* such as evidenced by the c< Ngandong skulls 1 ' 
and the "Wadjak skulk," too, have been found by ardiacologic efforts. 
All of these early settlers in Indonesia employed instruments, such as 
L1 hand-axes," which were made of unpolished stone and slightly tapered 
at one end [by chipping against another stone) to provide a handgrip. 
These crude instruments were probably used without handles or halting 
to serve as both tools and weapons. 

Between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods [15000-3000 b.c.), 
in the so-called Mesolithic, or transitory period, primitive inhabitants 
learned to fashion stone implements, sometimes actually sharpening 
them. Most of [be stone implements of this period are ground and 
polished. 4 

Asian continental influences stemming from Indochina, Annam, 
Laos, and possibly upper Burma and as far as India, arrived about the 
Neolithic time. The bronze culture of the Dong-s’ou followed and pros¬ 
pered centuries before Hindu influences were Iclt, Tongking and neigh¬ 
boring areas perhaps were also special contributors; it is probable that 
they gave the use of iron and attendant metallurgical skills to the 
primitive Indonesians. 

David Sopher has shown that the Rionw-Dingga Archipelago, which 
nestles in the straits between mainland Asia {Malay Peninsula) and the 
northeastern coast of Sumatra, was a collection point for forest primi¬ 
tives, river-bank dwellers, and strand collectors; the latter group dif¬ 
ferentiating from tltc former two* taking to small boats and gathering 
great mobility.* Later, with the southward movement of Mongoloid 
proto-Malays, great mixing of strand folk and the newly arrived im¬ 
migrants took place, especially in Sumatra. The Riouw-Lingga Archi¬ 
pelagos importance to Indonesian combative® Is of the highest order. 

The contribution of the so-called sea-nomads, the racially hetero¬ 
geneous, wandering maritime primitives, to the combative culture of 
Indonesia is indefinable. These nomads, with their great mobility, had 
at one time or another come in contact with many different cultures! 
Chinese, Burmese, Thai, Malay* Bugis, Madurese, Dayak, Suln, hc- 
mang, Sakai, Toradja, Alefuru, Moluccan, and still others. Their 
wande rings were distinct from the movements of the coastal Malays who 

3. Such remains were found in ih« Solo Valley near Ihe village cf TrimI b fltm-iral 


■4. Specimens are to be seen Ln ihe Djakarta and Palcmtung museums. 

5, Tht Sea Nnmitdi (Singapore .National Mwoim, 1365). 


also undertook great dispersions. The area m which (hr sca-nomada 
plirrij thrir Crafts ester ds for more' than two thousand miles in .t writ- 
cast direction, from Tctiasseirim to the Moluccas; it also extends some 
.sixteen hundred miles in a sow ill-north direction from the northern 
shores oi the Lesser Sunda Islands to well into the Philippine area. 
Driven on by natural wanderlust, the unfriendliness of overpopulated 
areas, and even hostilities, winds, and currents equally unfriendly, the 
pea-nomads spread all over the Indonesian Archipelago, 

It ts generally accepted that the earliest waves of pre-Neolithic sea¬ 
borne migrations from southeastern Asia in chr Indonesian /Vickipdago 
occurred some four or five thousand years ago. Here, too, population 
pressures it] China a]id possibly cubism were the tanSeS for these massive 
migrations. Whole communities were thus transferred to Indonesia. 
They brought weapons with them ibr self-defense against both men and 
animals. It is also probable that they exercised some degree of systemiza- 
tion over these weapons ;is incorporated into fighting arts. 

In the seaports of southeastern China are large communities of !*nat 
dwellers. Some, tike the Fan Chiu also Tan-Ida, Tanka, Tonka, Dung 
Cllilia), arc non-Chinese! and their origins are questifinable. 9 bu| their 
relationships to the culturally Superior Yuch of southeastern areas of pro 
3Ian China arc proven. The Yueti too were boat dwellers, or "water 
people,' 1 but were also, according to Chi Li, T valley dwellers. Carl W. 
Bishop notes characteristics in the society of these people to include irri¬ 
gated rice cultivation (after 1000 s.c,), long-boat culture, headhunting, 
war fleets, tattooing, and familiarity with plant poisons;* bladcd weap¬ 
ons were still other attributes, all affecting the combative culture they 
possessed. These same features arc positively uleiiiihrd among tin- im¬ 
migrants who migrated into tlir archipelago in the third or second 

millennium o.c. 

Several migrations at different periods took place aftetr the use of 
bronze was introduced into from northern China through middle 
Yangtze lauds. The Yucti in turn introduced this technology and the 
Cull of bronze drums into Ttmgking and North Vietnam (Dong-s'oTi 
culture (. 500 h-.cj. :, from where it diffused into parts of Indonesia. It 
is fact that the Dong-s h on daggers arc found in Indonesia; recently one 
was discovered on Flores. Some authorities insist that the famed Maja- 

6, .Valcvr mdialiil* givf the origin ii( I hi* fan Chi* Lo die Ch’im dynasty (231-206 
B.C. . A man who had W 91 rd u A l;---: it .lI ml a t :l Niih-it .irruy jornint A St rein^tuikl nn 
Hainan Island And ujccessful resist* nr f tc would-be ran^ueran uf Cannon. After 
hit clrAlh, Ills fattoweti wpm farrrd Ec» flee, Ijtlcmg to boats and becoming A “pariah 
dm,’ pecsecuced and ''hoc bwt'ifj cunsidtred worthy ta midr on rlvuv. 1 ’ I 'awn (Misha 
continued the pen oration or the Ian Chi+i -irid Mint; .mil drifted Able-bodied mtii 
irtlu military service. Only wilh tbc advent yf (he Manchus were tlvr Tan Chi a, 
Iwttd with 3cime idteeanee. 

7. TJke Formation of th* Chintu fre-fli* (Ckrmhridgie: I larva/d Umwtruly Press, 1938). 
h. "" Ixuvr-I tomes an-d Dragon-Boais,” ARlij/aifa 12 (1938). 


pah it krii is patterned after a Dong-s’ott dagger design-* 'Hid matter is 
Still further tom plicated by the fact that the bronze-socketed axes found 
all over Indonesia, h well as most of the primitive spearheads, are indi¬ 
cative of European influence, 

Another factor important to tlie combative accumulation of weapons 
nind fighting arts was that dreaded scourge of the seas—pirates. Like the 
Pathan mountaineers who “farmed the road" between Kabul and 
Peshawar, or the E^p-it’ou who “farmed the sea” between Continents) 
Asm and Japan, piracy has legitimate roots. The Sea Dayaks of Borneo 
who headhunted for the sheer joy of taking heads were often pirates; 
the Cclatcs, the most widely known and feared for piratical activities 
and who for Portuguese Fcmao {Fernand) Mendci pinto (15S0) were 

. . robbers who „ , , fight with blowpipes using poison \ptftjaa fpm 
mravatwai sfir ptcanha] and are the most treacherous people in the 
wodd/' 111 ' were fearless fighters, with an arsenal of weapons- But too 
often, for political,, religious, or still other reasons, the nomadic boat 
dwellers were given an undeserved reputation aa pirates. 

Arab and Chinese accounts dated before a.d. t SHU tell of piratical 
peoples. Fa Hskndescribed those who lurked, and plundered in an area 
between Sumatra and Singapore (W. p. GtOcneveldt identifies the area 
as tlie Lingga Straits; V, Obddjjn, as the Durian Strrtit-s of the Kiouw 
Archipelago). According to Grocneveldt, “They live chiefly from pi¬ 
racy, and when they see native vessels, they go out with many hundreds 
of small boats to attack them . , , they arc plundered and the crew 
tilled. Therefore ships are very careful in this neighborhood," 13 

Chao ju-kua, writing m the mid-thirteenth century 
recorded the people of Falrmhang-Srivijaya (StUk*fb-t'$i) as pirates. 
Then using the Ling-wei-tai-ta (e. 1120) nos an authority, he wrote of 
people in a country called Sha-hua-kung who plundered on the high 
seas and of savages on isles hear Fib called Ma-Lu-mi who Capture 
traders, “... roast them over a ftrr with a large bamboo pinchers and eal 
them"; this latter group, he reported, “use human skulls lor vessels for 
drinking and eating .*' There is no consensus about the geographical 
region of these people, but it may well have been Sumatra or Java. 

Whatever can be attributed to continental Asian influence on the 
combative culture of Indonesia must take into account the technical 

fl. The Docig-s'cn dagger is similar tolhc weapon deigns Holstein p.nrJ Drmr.arlt 
of the ScWldkFWIvhHl bi-poizr n.RP (fiflJi period). 

10. Thr I'tyajrrf and Adumtiiftl it/ Fttmnd Mtfidtl IT P&rltlgHfW (trildlklKl into 

English by H. C. Gent. [Srd Fab] Lontfon, IWil- 

19, ftularin;] NaUi an Indonesia arid Malawi CatnpiUd jt$m Chintft StMtitl I Djakarta, 

I MO), 

lit. V. Qbdeijn quo Ira PflLfoi aa IdeifLtifymft Shi-htifl-tixTi^; as, Java. David! SophtT 
olTm Hi rib ami RAekh ill's btHprUilian of Fo as Fo-ibi, Shi" Tang name for Eat 


influence of three major higb-tuUwre countries. The first of these, and 
ihr: senior ore in Indonesia, is that of China. 1 * Early Han -dynasty in¬ 
fluences can be seer in Duyak, Bntak, and Toradja cultures. Chinese 
ceramics daring from the first to si*,th centuries of the Christian era, as 
wdE as later products from the seventh to tenth centuries, are found in 
abundance on Java and Sumatra. Images of warriors mounted on full- 
bodied buffsklocs have been found at Pemataug, Sumatra, and in the 
Pegetaham area tm. These images have Chinese-style trappings and 
weapons. At Hatagadjidi is siili another image of a warrior mounted on 
an elephant; he too is armed with a Chinese weapon, the double-edged 
sword. '* The broad swords of Sumatra take some of their design char¬ 
acteristics from these early patterns. 

In Chinese temples, such as the one in the Pakojan area of Semarang, 
northern Central Java, can be seen images displaying combative mean¬ 
ings. The Scmarang Temple imag<;s arc not generally open to pubEic 
viewing, but the fortunate few who arc permitted to see them; will wit¬ 
ness art of rare excellence. Known as the Supalokim, eighteen images 
sit impassively in recesses along two facing walls of die inner prayer 
chamber of the temple, which is almost devoid of light the only illumi¬ 
nation comes from tapers that are kept lighted twenty-four hours a day. 
Nine images lacr another nine across the cliLimbet. Each has varied 
combative significance in the mu^d-form positinning of its arms and 
hands. 1 he poses depicted by these mudra all have combative rools, and 
are not the benign gestures they appear to be lo the untutored eye Thus 
the greatly varied hand actions of southern Chinese combative forms 
are epitomized by the eighteen Supalukun images., of which Figure I 
shows various poses of twelve. 

Care must be taken not to make unqualified interpretations based on 
the appearance of (hr firsl Chinese or ill eh culture in Indonesia. 
Chinese weapons and fighting arts may have made their debut in Indo¬ 
nesia at that lime, but it cannul be proved. Moreover, due (o the tradi¬ 
tional secrecy surrounding Chinese fighting arts, it is highly probable 
that technical knowledge cl" and practical skill w ith them were restricted 
to the Chinese It is also equally probable that no deliberate sustained 
effort was made to promulgate Chi tic#-style lighting arts among the 
natives. Until specific and factual historic evidence can be uncovered 
showing that China Im the taproot of Indonesian combative culture* all 
that ran be accurately said is that Chinese fighting arts had an un¬ 
known effect on the early formation of Indonesian combative measures. 

i.ater Chinese influences, however, can more readily be identified, 

(3. Included here of H.mjrse WthuiJ Lik [he Chinese rub-ofl r-fti-'-H [ on the culture* *)f 
Inctnc-h.i pa., Annjrn, Iriwrt, and in general, ihi- sLHJihrasiiTn area of die cum- 

[iruJtil, trvL'Ii [Jji. Malay iV'rnnsiii j.. 

14, Van Heckcrtn notei that ", , . doutale-edfled fwrcdi are unknown in China ami 
lflrd«Eraiii Iihlil inlmdin-prl frCNTJ lhr went," i Thi Brain* Age af /rw^nf/ifl. The llagut: 
Man intis IMijliaJf, ID5Si, 


I, Fcrur views showing v*rioui funsra cif twelve of the LM:13 Bup*]okun, ; 3 l 

fjeuiarang Tempte, Central Java, 

The: weapons and combative systems of Java and Bali show a large 
number of design ideas transferred from Chinese sources. Spearheads, 
such as on display at the SoclG Bocdqjo Sdtatrn Museum in jnjfjakarla, 
and tbow at the UenpaJ&r Museum as well, dearly illustrate this While 
metal easting is often reported ten have been imported to Java and 
spread by Chinese and Jnducliiticse influences, it k to hr noted that Van 
Hecktftn \Rrwzt finds an indigenous application: 

During the Japanese occupation VV, Rotliplctz found on the 
plateau of Bandung in java a large number of fragments of day 
moulds Ibr, spearheads - , - which prove that in proto 


V *Jt 

historic times such objects were actually manufactured in the 
locality and were not imported from abroad as is often believed. 

Stone slabs used to cast sword blades have i*ren Found on Java 10 sup¬ 
port the thesis Both are perdue and direc t casting methods were doubt- 
less involved in the making uf weapons. 

Then IOO the weapons distributed throughout ihe Lesser Slllldas and 
again those on ftnmro, Celebes, Moluccas, and related islets can be 
shown to have some Chinese influence. Flores combaLives could easily 
have a Chinese influence which would begin to bridge the cultural gap 
that exists between the whip-fighting styles of today and their origins. 
Van Hcekeren writes; M Ngada in Flores date back to the Late Chou style 
of China/' and thus suggests a positive cultural exchange ur transfer 
from the Asian continent to this remote island, 

The second great higli-ruliurr country which brought great forces to 
bear on Indonesia is India, with its things Hindu. Srividjaya, Mat a rum, 
Majapahu, and Mew Mataram are names that evoke historical evidence 
to show that Hindu oil lure is the taproot for Javanese legends, customs, 
arts, ceremonies, weapons, and fighting arts, The first named, Srividja- 
ya, was the Pale mbang-b used great empire that Commanded the sra 
routes between India and China. There is hit It authentic evidener to 
support the idea that it existed prior to a.d. 670. 

The original inhabitants of Sumatra, as well as later travelers to and 
from the island sec Chapter 3, p. 109)), made good use of the Riouw 
Archipelago as a laud bridge between the Malay Peninsula and this 
insular area. Multidirectional migratory flows converged on the Riouw 
area and made it a convenient and important collection poim for wrap- 
mi and combative ideas. Influences there were especially strong from 
I ndia, Indochina,, and China. Many Indonesian combat authorities fed 
that Indonesian-Styled crmnbativcs began on Riouw. 11 These combative*, 
la trr served as the basis of what came to he called pentjalt'iiiat, The old 
Riouw combat ives are today termed lilat Melayu, and it is known that 
they were in use as early as the sixth century a.d, They were crude 
forms; iheir germ ideas, however, were carried to the Mcnangkabau 
kingdom at Friangan, its ancient capital, and oho to the Srividjaya 
empire centered at Falcmbang. In the former area, silsi MeUyu under¬ 
went great diversification and formed what is today traditionally rec¬ 
ognized as the Source (^'Indonesian ptntjst-lilal. 

The Hindu-flavored but Indoncmart-btiili monument* of Central 
Java, the fiorobudur, and the Pramhanan temple complex, stand as 
gigantic Works of ancient civilizations. Their murals and imagery show 
the weaponry of ilinse early times. Swords, bows and arrows, sfwars, 
shields, armor, dubs, knives, and halberds can bp seen in the artwork 
of these structures; even a wrestling form is identified (Fig. 2). 

15. H_ HuMifl, Madura's top combative aru authority, bdds such sa Hipimon, 


I "lie Borobudur is silua(ed in [Inn Kedu region* north of Jogjakarta, 
lying on ihr west side of the confluence of the Praga and Elo rivers. 15 
The Borobudur is a stupa * 17 whose very name ls derived From the San¬ 
skrit word bikam hrihara) r rendered bwo ill Indonesian, meaning 
‘‘monasteryand the Indonesian word Aid^crr, meaning ‘‘hill" Boro- 
bndur is thus “monastery on a hill." No known inscription gives precise 
information almut its found!ng dale, but from the old Javanese script 
writing discovered at its footing, 1 * it is thought iu have been cons trotted 
during the period of the ^silrndra-dynasty rule over Java (a.d, 732— 
900} in possibly about 850. The Qailcndra kings, “kings of the mourt- 
tain 11 (from caita meaning "mminlaiii” and iWrff, “king 1 " 1 ), were the 
protectors of Ruddtusm- 

The Prambarian temple complex, also known as the Loro Iljon^grang 
group J* is the royal mausoleum of some ancient civilization. The struc¬ 
ture is the largest composite temple group in Indonesia and is situated 
at Frambaflan, east of Jogjakarta. The name is said to have derived 
from the word bitthmaw, which was corrupted to krambahtm and later 
to whal it is today. Vet a stone inscription dated in (he ninth century 
reveals that the name Prambanin had been derived front the tax-free 
Paramwan village, which was charged with Carr-taking respond hi lilies 
of the temples. 

The Frambanan temple complex was not built by ary one person's 
direction, but by various kings of Mata rant in the second half of the 
ninth century, it is the greatest Samir monument and is situated amidst 
Buddhist structures, such as the compound group Sewu-Bubrah-Lum- 
bung, the Flaosan temples, the Sadjiwan Temple, (he Kalasan* and the 
Sari. The founder of the Prambanan was probably the first Saivitc king 
after the Buddhist period (732—928); his successors were all devout 

The Frambanan temples are dedicated to the four-armed Giva (Siva), 
the Supreme God also known as “The Destroyer.’ 1 The main temples 
are the Giva in the center, the Brahma, or “The Creator,in the south, 
and the Vishnu, or “The Preserver, 1 ' in the north; together they form 
die Triimirti, or “Trinity.” The Ova Temple main chamber houses 
Giva as the main diety (nu&idmcdj. At the back of Civa and on his right, 

Ml. Tha localini WM ddibmilely rhniro lo harmnnJzi; with lh<- tmtin™ *if the iile 
r.ilU-rl m India, Iik lilrd al ihe CullflueiK*! tii"(he fliti'.^.i acid Yamuna riven. 

The Iridomiian river cuametl Frag* u iakrn from ihe Indian ward IV ayaga. 

17. A burial pj*cr fnr ihr a*hi*3 cjf Gautama Buddha prcnRTiir.ed by i tx rhar.-Li LrrblLC 
A.J.uKui.3 (stpMeb^k) and mtra iunibrelJai itfUClUTH, usually a hetftHphnf ic dome. 

IB. Derived from ihe lo-c-allnHl Filliwi srnpi, of southern Jiirlhm. «rLi{in, ihij. early 
form of writ i rut j.;nn valuable c Iij<s Lo the kHJUiliiiir daLe. 

|£f, Fc'uim [he legend of Loro Djonggrang r [ho Slender Virgin, in which the daughter 
Ilf (he giant king of Praml lanan u lurned In itnnr by (irr enragrtl suitor whiim she 
had l drier. I, 


sLands a huge indent weapon, The relicts depicting the Ramayamt 
£«sry irmidr the balustrade of (he lerraec of the lower wall nf the CSva 
Temple arc filled with important weaponry of the times and alTbrd 
valuable combative information, 211 

I he Hr id mu Temple Is decorated with a continuation of ihr Rama- 
yana reliefs to complete ilir story told first in the Civa reliefs. The 
Vishnu Temple has enraged reliefs in the low balustrade depicting the 
Krishnayana story, 21 The main image of Vishnu lias four arms; the 
right forehand is seen resting on a club. In the other temples still more 
combative information is to be (bund. The PJaosan temple group, some 
three miles from Frarnbaiian, has an external ring wall that possesses 
two gales Silling before each gate are tw ! o big stone-carved giants, They 
arc known as di£'mapala T the Sanskrit word for “gale guards. 11 '1 he 
Sewn, or “Thousand 'I’em pies," structure symbolizes Buddhism. Eight 
dinaiapaia, kneeling on one knee, each over eight feet tall, stand guard, 
two at each gate, their obviously formidable bulk reinforced with clubs 
held ill the right hands, and also armed with swords. 

In Oniml Java, the tjandi** such as the Borobudur and the Pram- 
banan temple complex, are replete with combative lore in the form of 
artwork. Unfortunately, the investigations which have been carried out 
concerning the interpretations of these art treasures have not included 
the combative aspect, This work has yet to he accomplished, but when 
it is it will certainly reveal an insight about weapons and their possible 
employments for this period of Indonesian history. 

The name of Mataracn appears recorded first in a.o. H9fi r Whether it 
corresponds to lltr srmdegcndary kingdom of Men dang Kamilla n is not 
known. It is often suggested that the paulcndra displaced the Hindu 
kingdom near Prambanau in the mid-eighth century. Its power Ex¬ 
tended into Continental Asia, specifically Cambodia and the Malay 
Peninsula, and over Snvidjaya in fiumalra. Perhaps when the Qailendra 
transferred its scat of power to Sumatra, the exiled Saivitcs returned 
to East Java to establish the kingdom of Mataxam and to build their 

.21! The Indian epic ml him L turn) Rama, Vishnu reincanuleil, [;r-lruts ihe wicked 
krtiL' Havana tvlur dulurtn ihe world. Thai tale: wai perhaps ftr>L remrrlrd in wniinj; 
by thr poet Vulniiki in the third century ts.c. As Lhe story of die- canfitet nfi^gd and 
rvil and tin- eventual triumph of [food, u is well known all over Indonesia where 
Hindu culture has iiprlrLrJLnd. 

23, Knshna, another incarnation of S'ishnu, >r ihc hena of another entailing 
raniatLljC mtfiJoi I*. I uflvthei with his bmtlw hn heroic i|i --(I* lay the bfeia 
For (his le*s wrll-knoimn story which is caonpara lively rare in Javanese literature and 

22. A word derived from Saiif,krii Chandigriha, "House o f the tioddess of Dulh ” 
It i? commonly applied: to alt ancient monuments irrespective of thr-Jr purpose or 
reJifjiuLia ori|];in. Outwardly Uiey do not iJilTi-r from temples EerrinjU, for rmcular Wor¬ 
ship of I Eindu, diet ies ■ Javanese Ijandi are dedicated Id die cull of the dead. Elitiduiitic 
religion, ciunwlof^y, and theism have lice P adapted to aborifpina] worship of 
Indonesia Aliil |riTj.n‘L*.jalwJ by ihesi' ■nomimcnts 


great monuments on the Prambanan plain, Mam ram's function rtuial 
have been great, but Hindu influence reached its apogee under the 
Majapahit ruler Gad]all Mad a in the fourteenth century, 

The famed King Kcrtosicgoro of Singnsari, a martially minded and 
able warrior-leader, not only conquered the islands neighboring Java 
but had also challenged the mighty empire of Srividjaya and even the 
great Khubla Khan. Outraged, the Khan dispatched a punitive ex¬ 
pedition to chastise the upstart king, hut during a relicIIion Isy a vassal 
In Kcdiri, King Kericnegoro was killed before chr Chinese task force 
arrived. Radon Widjoyo, the king’s son-in-law, look up the reins of 
leadership, taking temporary refuge in the wilds offlrantas. Conferring 
with his most-trusted men under a huge madja tree, Widjoyo chose the 
name Majapahit, "bitter fruit,” for his refugee government 

Widjoyo, allied with the Chinese punitive expedition, defeated the 
Kediri forces and then treacherously fell upon the Chinese and chased 
them back to their own country'. VVhether the victory was due to superi¬ 
ority' of weapons and technical employment or the sheer weight cd num¬ 
bers is not known but it did little to show the technical soundness of 
Mungo! fighting arts. 

After tint death of Widjoyo, Gadjah Mada ruse from the royal guards 
to a position of power and consolidated the Majapahit holdings, Bali, 
Srividjaya in Sumatra, the Celebes, Moluccas, and pari ofBorneo were 
all uEider the influence of the Majapahit. Only the recalcitrant Pacl]A- 
djaran in West Java was militarily strong enough to withstand the 

Prnljak-sitat, win 1 1 " perhaps slid a crude combat form in the eleventh 
century, was by the fourteenth century polished and the technical prop¬ 
erty of the nobility—(he Majapahit sultans and their court olTarials. 
Commoners were excluded from learning its tactics. 

After the death of Hayim Wuruk, (lie "Young Cock," in I3G9, who 
as king had continued the Majapahit fortunes, the empire, weak¬ 
ened by intrigues and civil wars, (eh apart. Radon Fatah, one of the 
Bight Apostles of Islam, led 3m men against Krowidjoyo V and de¬ 
stroyed the Hindu capita! and king in 1478. Traditionally this date 
represents the fall of the Majapahit, buL Lt does not mean that Hindu 
culture was completely discarded and replaced by an aggressive rtewf- 
comer, Islam- Islam, blade in hand, had administered (he tvup dt grdsj 
to the tottering Majapahit, but Hindu culture lived on, in a retreat 
across the straits called Hah, where Islam was not welcome. The fero¬ 
cious combative imagery erected there reflects these feelings. 

Islam, and Muslim weapons, came to Indonesia in abundance prior 
to the fall of the Majapahit. Marco PoAo had visited the Aijeli {Suma¬ 
tra) region ill 1292 and reported Muslims living there, and there is some 
evidence to support the claim for Muslim residence In the eleventh 
century. But in a combative sense it is the Muslim conflict with the 
Hindu culture that gives the greatest contributions. 


Dtfmak, in Java, was the powerful early Musi ini 
stronghold established by thr: aggressive Radcn Fatah. Radetfs warlike 
son continued the ttronghold's grip on the Javanese, and by the early 
sixteenth century Dcmak was the leading power. Sultan Trcnggana, 
the first prince of Java lu be awarded his title by Mecca, was the second 
son ol Radcn. He was delcrmined to eradicate the remaining Hindu 
resistant in Hatamhpingan at the lip of eastern Java. His plans were, 
however, never fulfilled because ul bis own assassination, which brought 
further confusion and an eventual power struggle for ascendency, result¬ 
ing in the downfall of Demak, Mataram, Hindu centered, then estab¬ 
lished its supremacy once again. 

I he Dutch arrived in Indonesia in the seventeenth century. They 
were aggressive from the start, seeking to control the trade of the Space 
Islands (the Moluccas), They brought in substantial military might, 
built forts, and did not hrsitate to usc their guns. They drove out the 
I'm-iugucsc and later the English to make it quite clear that no others 
were welcome in Indonesia. Until 1799 Indonesia was ruled by the 
United East India Company, ihereafter (except for a brief period of 
British control during the Napoleonic wars) rule was administered by 
the Netherlands government. 

I he Indonesians sought to free themselves bom the yoke of suppres¬ 
sion. Revolts, uprisings, and underground activities were frequent. All 
were suppressed by Dutch military might, 23 In the nineteenth century 
tbe Dutch brought in hundreds of thousands of Chinese mere ban is m 
aid the economic "farming'' of Indonesia. With these Chinese came a 
great variety of kuntao methods, u specific conglomeration of fighting 

The twentieth century brought with it a nationalist movement, and 
by 1927, Indonesians had formulated thr National Party; other as¬ 
sociated groups also formed. All were tuned toward broking the Dutch 
hold, and the Dutch reacted by exiling all political lenders to the mala¬ 
ria infested swamps of West New Guinea or toother equally undesirable 
places- The struggle tietween the Indonesian desire for freedom aud ibr 
Dutch stubbornness favoring colonization continued with an important 
boost, to weapons and lighting arts, especially in the area of penijak- 

World War II brought the Japanese to Indonesia in 1942. In the lacr 
of this threat the Dutch surrendered unconditionally. The Japanese 
military overlords proved more severe limn did thr Dutch. Alt political 

2 J. 'I~he combati ve aria of IiiElrmsaia, rsprr i j]ly jtanfjpft-jrftfj were a» yei unsiuited fnr 
iht- i«t ol ncutnttxing Dutch military mi^hc. 

24. It ii ihii fominjj ol i he Chine*? which baa pnjudiced IndiHirair^Cbinnr n*la- 
dons. Tor I be Chines* (tusk over approximati-ty 2D penccnl of the national income-, !>»■ 
Diiteh retaining about 60 percent, TIiAr Qiintir s ave kuniao a. big boost but wet* 
jjvrfiafH not ilir pionren for in Indonesia. 


parties went underground and practically all fighting arts and weapons 
suffered attenuation of employnKrit The Japanese defeat in 1945 
brought the efforts for freedom, oflndoncrians to final realization. Their 
efforts began with education, Military training wjts an important kind 
of education; Japanese methods were adapted, The English arrived in 
Indonesia but did not bnther the national government. However* with 
the rearrival of the Dutch, the British were forced out by late I9ib r and 
Dutch military power was re-established in Indonesia, The i3(-equipped 
Indonesian military forces were forced to flee to remote areas to fight .in 
underground war. 

In the years to follow, up until die unconditional transfer of complete 
sovereignty to Indonesia by the Dutch in 1949 i'sans West New Ehiinea 
until 1962), jt was the underground military movement, the anti-Dutch 
emotions, which brought great development to the lighting- arts and 
weapons of Indonesia. The Dutch found (hat they could militarily lake 
over cities and towns and hold them, but they were completely unable 
to control the villages and the main network of roads connecting the 
various villages. It was the Dutch holdings, the nonmikitary enterprises, 
which suffered most. Guerrilla action by the natives against Dutch 
plantations, in a "scorched-earth 1 ' policy, toon proved to hr effective; 
irate Dutch owners pressured their own government to cease military 

Patijak'SiUi received its greatest technical boost during this period, 
and major styles gave impetus to the proliferation of newer and more 
functional interpretations. By and large, the old weapons of pinijaJt- 
Iiiai remained unchanged, but took on highly diverse applications for 
hand-to-hand combat under Conditions (if the modern age. The major¬ 
ity ofptntjak-rifat systems were understandably plalformcd nn a national¬ 
istic foundation and became an expression of the drive for independence, 
so long overdue. 

■ Technical Rationale 

Indonesian fighting arts and weapons have an almost exclusive orienta¬ 
tion toward practicability in both technical design and employment. 
This was made so by the necessities imposed upon Indonesia in the 
development of her national character. By solving her own internal 
problems through the process of experience, both fortunes and mis¬ 
fortunes, Indonesia has made and continues to make essential contri¬ 
butions to the combative culture of the world. Several important factors 
arc involved, 

I' irsl is the Indonesian virtue of syncretism." 5 ' Their ability to adopt, 

25. Indonesians have a remarkable ability to lyomtiw. Any nation iuch al their* 
which can manage In siijw rimpmu three tori']fin ltlfilv>cuL[ur« cm their uwn 
aboriginal one and tan develop one that is acceptable at nationally diftbrent and 
ia iLstaririFv to all n indi'Hi vinuou*. 


adapt, and infuse ideas with elements of foreign culture lias 

enabled them to compound weapons and fighting arts that arc among 
the most interesting in thr world- Borrowing from the three high-culture 
civilizations and thru building upon their own, Indonesians L ’toolt and 
made” a full range of fighting arts that span all methods from empty- 
hand through blade, stick and staff, composite, and projectile weapons. 

Second, Indonesian syncretism bears out the truism that in this world 
there cannot br anything absolutely unique in the experience of ary 
race, Peculiarities may estist which at first 1 1 lush give the superficial 
appearance of bring unique, but upon closer scrutiny they will always 
be found to be chiefly a matter of selection and emphasis, not differences 
in spec i lie humanity. By select ion and emphasis of foreign elements, 
Indonesian weapons and fighting arts stand in ilir main as synthesis 
products of native endeavor. But (his is not (he whole story, Indonesians 
have been very autogenic and have produced indigenous weapons and 
combative systems while, on the other hand, they have been receptive 
to transplanting 4< pure style 1 ’ weapons and systems. 

Indonesian fighting arts and the weapons (hat articulate them can be 
brought into three major combative categories: (1} twflfrw, (2) paiijak- 
siiat , and (3) endemic forms. The first two are distinguished by the Fact 
that they are relatively Standardized, formalized, and crystallized! 
methods; the third is composed of a great variety of combative ideas 
lying outside of either of the first two and has ideas which vary as 
greatly as do the different peoples using them. Each of these three major 
categories will be discussed in its appropriate place in later chapters, 
but a Jew introductory remarks arc relevant here. 

KuniaOt as far as Indonesia is concerned, consists of a variety of com¬ 
bative forms transplanted from the Asian mainland. Though it cannot 
be historically documented, it appears to be thr oldest formalized major 
combalive art in Indonesia,, dating to the time of the first Chinese set¬ 
tlements (h.c;.) in this archipelago. From the nineteenth century onward 
Krntai? gave evident, but limited, aid to the development of true Indo¬ 
nesian I firms of combat, 

Every Chinese community in Indonesia has kuntao, but because of the 
traditionally attached secrctivcness of its teachings [especially to non- 
Chinese}, huuiao may not be openly displayed, or even known, lo other 
than Chinese Indonesians. n It is found mostly on Sumatra, java, Bor¬ 
neo, mid the Celebes, but may also be found in the far-flung outposts 
and remote hamlets alt over (hr archipelago, such as in Kupaug on 
Timor. The sanchitn, or “three step," arc basic Fundamentals common 
to almost all styles, and the further major dependence upon animal 

jf6. I his point Jl .hi all’impturLanl raif Kr^n-CHini'se Indonesians will LU 'J a! [ y ari’iji’ 
againii the seniority uf Anifttoo 1 cnwr ttuirr iiirltifemim nmintirr fonm, t he (--hine-sc 
culture pri^-i-Hpit th-it of the Hindus. I Tit; mete fact tliai JtimJjio cjniirit Im- report'd II 
having t»eti ieeJl in the j-ji rly rlnys pf Ipickmesiitll hisuiry cannot be rightfully u*ed as 
an argument for its ntwieJtiiLrflre. 


actions and nomenclature for interpretation and identification of styles 
is. an important characteristic. Both northern and southern Chinese 
^tfjaj’jao styles are observed in Indonesia. 

The U finger arid Kcldhak thinCcS of Bali exhibit profound Climese 
influences which senr io makr up each of their peculiarities. Both of 
these datives, while of relatively recent. choreography, nevertheless bor¬ 
rowed some typical kunim movements.* 1 

A current Indonesian dictionary defines pentjak as “a System of self- 
defense" and siiai as "fencing 1 * or ,L to lend off-" F. Bo were main tains 
that they are two words for the same thing; 2 * some differ by regarding 
penijak as an art and stial as physical culture. None of these definitions 
arc acceptable to master exponents pcnijai-silat. Combatively speak¬ 
ing, perhaps the best translations are found in thr Menangkahau ron- 
nolation,** which equates prntjak as "skillful body movements in varia¬ 
tions for self-defense/’ and tifat as “lighting application of ptnljak” 
Other definitions exist, but all agree that iitat cannot exist without 
ptnijak; penijak without 5Hat is purposeless. 

The word pmijak has a curious possible original source derived from 
the Mandarin (Chinese) Shantung expression pung<ha. Pang means "to 
parry and Cover art attacking action/’ while chd implies "‘to finalise by 
striking [chopping} action." The lirst ideogram implies an “avalanche 
force" while the second implies "pressing/ 1 Thus by corruptive adop¬ 
tion pung-thu may have become pnUjak. 

Ptnijak-silat is certainly to be termed a combative form indigenous to 
Indonesia. But it Is a synthesis product, not a purely autogenic endeavor, 
as some ptnijak-nlai exponents believe. In ptrtfjak-stiai van lie found for¬ 
eign influences, such us Nepalese music, Hindu weapons and comba¬ 
tive Styles, Siamese costumes, Arabian wtapOiU, and Chinese weapons 
and combative laches. Without its technical ancestry as hast'd on Ibr- 
eign ideas, pentjak-silat could never be what it is today; that is, it would 
no doubt exist, but it would have an entirely different form if foreign 
influences were to be entirely removed from it. w The natural, easy- 
flowing circular grace of movement so characteristic of most penijak- 
silat styles lias its roots in Chinese combative soil. The word pixau is a 
corruptive form of ihe Chinese pi-iAou, which serves to identify a small 
knife used in almost all penijak-iilat systems. These examples and many 

'pi. ^CKUlh China &KnJ<M hand utkirti make up a laijp! [toi-ricni «f I he Dj.i i iri’t . while 
eel lh*' liMrr il.Lru e run be si!<tl lh.c jtaidhn'K'rmm of Fukien, 

!iB. Thraiei hi tkt Eat (Fiew Yarik, I95fij, 

2*1, CJuan Tjai, a Chi new nf (he PiuEans, SumjLra ar«'a, u a ptH\jttk-uhi and thaJuW 
autharity wliu tc*niiden ihu tJeliniuon standard. 

30. A similar analogy applies to the combmiv? form* t.l kneva, Okinawa, .mil japan. 

While [irifwcstinp native name* In Identify tiy ; Kun-an iOtkiuMidi}; Okinawan katilit- 
juim ; Japanese lurntenlo'), all of these cwnbaiives have been generated around a con¬ 
tinental Asian haae, ihi-recjvovaS of which wrjlllrl gri-.iljy rhaiERr tlieir nut ward fiOrnUL 


others make Chinese influence an important root for pmtjak'fiUt , how¬ 
ever, it is not the only our. 

Hindu culture gave ptntjak-nUi a vast heritage of combative ideas. 
Many of the grappling tactics used stem from Indian origins- (hr thigh- 
slapping nintits of \'d;nous pffdjak'fiUt styles smack of Hindu wrestling 
ritual in Hindu culture. The Indian (rituU, ihr trident-hcHid spear, Is 
believed to have served as the prototype for the tjsbafig (branch) t the 
forked Iron truncheon. 41 The tjabang is a pn>MajapaJlit weapon {per¬ 
haps Srividjaya) and was originally used defensively as a shield, blone- 
sculpture artworks in Java depicting this weapon give Li historic support 
which predates its appearance in Chinese and Okinawan interpretations, 

Arabian blades have been can ied over in ptntjnk-sibil by their Muslim 
devotees- The Arab jumtna is the probable prototype for many of the 
Muslim pthljak-iilat blade patterns. 

Japanese combative ideas also have penetrated the technical design 
a ltd mannerisms of ptntjak-itlai, and have played an important role in 
the development of modern pmtjak^silai, Therefore, Indonesian pintjak- 
sflal further indirectly increases its awareness of eastern Asian rombn- 

Ptntjak-iiiat exists in 157 officially recorded styles, tn matters of its 
technical characteristics, it abides by certain local area physical abilities 
and cultural mannerisms of the people, such as produced by socio¬ 
economic forces of the area in which the combative style was born. 
Thus, given a specific geographical area, it is possible to predict the 
major technical characteristics of its intrinsic form.” The following 
summary js generally valid: 

a) foot tactics—Sumatra 

b) hand tactics— West Java, Borneo,, Celebes 

c) synthesis ifoot-and-hand tactics)—Central Java, Bast Java, 

Madura, and Bah 

d | grappling lafilics -East Java, Bali, Sumatra 

All systems of pcntjak-iilat arr based on the use of weapons. They are 
positively not considered empty-hand combative measure* in the purest 
sense of that expression, No pentjak-silat system is combatively idealistic* 
so foolish, or so naive as to require the exclusive use of empty-hand 

31. Variously known as ttijw in souLh-ern Chins anti inj rm Okinawa ami 

32 . Hit trader is warnral nevt In rrly upon tlhii% rcUtSOnship for [he jjur]jii£!; uf over 
gruc-rn1 1 lirg Ihe technical charattej-isiier nf Ind^mman ptntjtf-nlitt. It is applicable 
mily Lu Ecrhmral charBete-riatjej n,j Formuta'Utd in dw art-a Lif origin. Thin, fnr I** am¬ 
ple. not ill SiLMitrtfl pentjak-tiimt «w prrdf>TninaTi1 1y foot tarsia, for with the iraniJV-r 

of from DtPlW ift'aj eF ari^irt, or Fbnvly dpv<*ln.prrt ijylrj, thl& n'lltioruhip 

break* dflfcm, Perhaps, it is better to uie ihe retaurtfiihijj iti tin- rev*nr, Upon- feeing 
a ptnljai.-nl<il form and identifying m pcedomtnani technical (.harati-eriiijr {foot, 
hand, etc, : its source area may be revealed acrarding to ihr relationship stated. 


tactics for wiving all combative iUttalioni. 84 Rather, empty-hard tactics 
art the foundation for weapons employments. Conversely, the exponent 
who is unarmed or disarmed does not suffer ary disadvantage; he tan 
fight effectively. To harmoniously weld together empty-hand and weap¬ 
ons skills, ptntjak-silai has purposely built in a feature which character¬ 
ises all classical forms. This is the feature which permits precisely the 
same empty-hand actions to be performed while holding a weapon or 
weapons, without danger to the operator himself. 31 

To exercise both the unarmed and armed aspects nf ptntjaA-iital, 
Javanese systems employ the method of the Ltnjok. The name implies 
4S a fight of one against many. 1 ' It is a test of shill imposed cm skilled ex¬ 
ponents to test their continuous responses lo gang-attack tactics. As 
many as eight or more “enemies” may be pitted against a solitary de¬ 
fender. The defender is attacked with all means available; both armed 
and unarmed situations arc rapidly thrust upon him. Weapons used 
against him may be interchanged by his attackers, and a great deal of 
exertive training is produced thereby for all participants. The defender 
must be well versed in both attack and defense methods over the entire 
range of weapons and unarmed auark-defrnse situations. When com¬ 
pletely unarmed, he must be acrobatic enough to avoid the weapons 
being used by his attarkers. When able to secure a weapon or weapons, 
he trust apply the same effectively without endangering himself. This 
method is railed tattw in East Java. The whole matter ls complicated 
because there is no prearrangement as to what attacks will be forth¬ 
coming from the attackers; the defender is free lo use any available 
means for his defense. Naturally, the concern for safety requires all 
participants to focus their actions so that if faulty responses are made, 
no serious injury can result. 

Weapons for pfnijak-sildl are a mixture of indigenous and transplanted 
types, the latter largely from continental Asia. Almost all classical 
pcnijak-silat systems contain thr following weaponry as standard (Fig. 3]: 

fmau —a short-bladed knife with no specilie sbajie or dimensions. 
parang —a cleaver-type knife with blades ranging from ten to thirty- 
six inches in length. The cutting edge is straight or nearly so, and 
the blade Ls broadest and heaviest at the tip; the reverse edge is 

315. No luck martial inchbtry exists Fur any cLxv;irj±l fitnijai-iilni form. This eonstdera- 
npn is irue of all genuine corobaiive m™nna. Modern-day aniphwi cm the empty* 
fLitid aspects or sporting cmiJeu for Chinese, Korean, or JaspaOtt* figbtfag feOB hm 
particularly rlouded Lhe issue. Japanese or other mu.aiicomtM.uvci antimmeed 

by ihiLi form display lhe IVl that ihry irf nut daiilcal eombaiive measures, by ih-mr 
refusis] to permit the epcniar die luc of weapons, Japan™; kipau-JH, ;l tWffiHeiit- 
century development, completely untested in actual eotnbat, is especially guilty of 
1 his combative unreality. 

34. This fraiijTT e*i;«u in classical AiwjVj.i and suggests io some authrmiies a texture 
bnnxKwrd by p^nljak-nlsttr 




3. SLilidiijd weaponry n( fifnlyik-iiinl. 



aIsoquiicstraight but has a rather blunt contour which brings it 
to the tip at a slant. 

inlr—a unique, double-edged dagger with blade lengths ranging 
from live to just over thirty inches. 

tjabang—a. short metal truncheon lilted with two line projections 
that emerge from the shaft at a place where the handle ends. 
Overall lengths range from approximately twelve to twenty-five 

fejtf—a wooden staff, usually ofrattan, some five to six feet in length 
and from one and one-half IQ two inches iti diameter atung iu 
entire un tapered length. 

In addition to standard weaponry^ well-known and more geographi¬ 
cally localized types exist. They are not necessarily rest rioted to (heir 
localities, however. Such weapons include {Fig. 4): 


tettgkat {gada or gala )—a series of names commonly applied to sticks 
and clubs of short hut nondescript lengths. 

ptdmg —a short word wish a curved or straight blade, usually 
single-edged, varying in overall length from between fifteen to 
thirty-five inches; actual blade lengths vary upward from ten 
inches. The weapon is designed for single-handed employment. 

arii —a sickle with pronounced half-motm blade patterns and short 
handle. Usually employed single-handed; there is some use of 
two, one in each hand. 

goiak —a heavy, cleaver-type knife with a convex cutting edge. The 
blade is heaviest in ihr center and Hows away in a Curve to a 
sharp point at the (ip, Blades range in length from len lu twenty 

keltwdng —a long Sword with a single cutting edge and a protruding 
notch near Its tip. Blades vary from fifteen to thirty inches in 

loml/ak— a spear with various head designs and a great range of 
shaft lengths. 

Additionally, most systems of ptntjai-sHat harbor special weapons, 
beyond those already mentioned. These will be described in their 
appropriate places in Eater chapters. 

There has been a serious tendency by lorrign observers, and scholars, 
to regard penljak-silat as a dance form. This notion is in gross error and 
it ia criticized by orthodox experts. Several factors have contributed to¬ 
ward this misunderstanding: 

E] pt’ntjak-sitai is a composite issue and can hr practiced separately 
in each of its component parts. 

2j the agility arid graceful movements of penljak-nltit exponents 
'suggest artistic qualities which appeal To the aesthetic and 
kinesthetic senses. 

3) music is sometimes used as accompaniment to pentjak-sitot 

4) some Indonesian dances have utilized paiijak actions; on the 
other hand, ptntjuk-iitai may also have Ijorrowed some ideas 
from dances. 

It will l>p apparent from the definition of pthtjak-uim (sec p. 32) that 
it can be practiced in two different ways. Hut underlying all is the Fact 
that ptntjnk is practiced lo develop rilat ability; pmljak is never practiced 
for its own sake. With rare exceptions it is. only the pentjak Component 
that the casual observer is permitted to see; his untutored eye reaches 
the natural conclusion that what he sees is the whole. The regulated 
performance ofjCwif^; utilizes a beauty of action, fluidity, and quickness 
that can appear to be a dancelifce rhythm. Add to this the percussion 






4. J-jb£aJjznJ wrap-unr)', TOMBAK 


5, Percusuan. cnusir accompansmen t training. 

music Fig, 5), which usually accompanies ptnfjuk training, and the 
viewer's conclusion is intensified.. But the music is used much like a 
metronome in order to determine rhythm of movement for trainrc-H, nut 
to make pmtjak a dance form- The music is of course dispersed with in 
s it at. 

The Pagarujung area near Bukittinggi, Sumatra, is the center of an 
energetic ptntjak'Siiat form known as patae silat. This form has been 
interestingly 1 reported on by F, Bowers iti his ThtaUr in Iht East, What 
Bowers actually witnessed was the randai. The randai is a dance form, 
whichj though borrowing pfnljak -file movements, i$ nut actually pmljak 
(Fig. 6). The Tunfai tells the story of Sik Rasana from Pajakumbuh p a 
wicked woman who was driven from her village and wished to return. 
fata i exponents take part in this dance thrmr as well as in another 
dance which involves balancing china saucers as they move-. By graceful 
motion and skillful arm and hand actions, the saucers are moved with¬ 
out dropping them [Fig. 7). 

The pandekatf a muter teacher of pfwtjak-iiUi, is the most interesting 
and respected personality of the combative art. (The word pandtkar 
stems from the Menangkabau expression pandai akal which means 
"clever mind.’*) The pandtkar is, aside from his great technical skills, a 
spiritualist around whom many legends have been construcErd. Among 
his many claimed supernatural powers arc those of mental telepathy, 



mind reading, mystic healing, 36 and foreseeing tlic future. The cotnba- 
live invulnerability of (he pandekar is a Up an unexplainable property of 
his mystic status. There arc few genuine /tani&fcar in Indonesia today. 

Endemic combative systems are those composed largely of regional 
area fighting methods. The majuriLy of them are based on combative 
ideas developed and used by specific peoples in specific areas, confined 
to tbow areas and not found elsewhere in Indonesia, Others are those 
fighting arts and weapons based on a local area style transplanted to 
still another area, there to undergo modifications and alterations which 
tune it to the new people who are to use them; but the original character 
may still be observed in terms of technical form. Sill I other endemic 
combative systems are synthesis efforts which may borrow from kuntao 
and/pr ptnijdk-silai and even from other combative forms including 
those of foreign countries; such synthesis products take on standards as 
set by efforts of (heir respective founders. But, because of the great 
latitude in any endemic fighting art, expressed in terms of Weapons and 
their employments, the endemic systems are less formalized and crystal¬ 
lized in a technical sense than are the better-known and pentjak- 

silat forms. 

Throughout the Indonesian Archipelago the endemic combative 
systems utilize all the standard weapons of pentjak-sttaf,' 3 ' 1 but addition¬ 
ally have devised peculiar instruments of their own, Some very brnud 
generalizations concerning the predominance of weapons in relation to 
geographical area are possible. Proceeding eastward from Sumatra, 
the archipelago's westernmost boundary, hladed weapons in knife and 
sword designs ate dominant. This preference holds generally true 
throughout Java, Bali, Lombok, Borneo, and the Celebes. Beginning in 
Borneo and the Celebes, however, the dominant bladed weapon be¬ 
comes the spear as a projectile weapon. Some additional popularity is 
accorded in the blowpipe, still another projectile weapon, further east 
lies the Molucca} (including Halntahera and Tanimbar). Here the jtick 
and staff vk for dominance alongside the projectile weapons, There is 
some indication of lessening dominance for the spear on the eastern 
edges of the Moluccas, and the bow and arrow come into favor. At the 
archipelagos easternmost boundary. West New Guinea (including the 
Aru Islands), Lhe bow and arrow is the dominant weapon. 

35. This writer, having nuffi-rcd a deep tCllp- wound, wa$ IrEaled by the fmndikar 
fJirdjnaiinpttjii of Phrasal Diifi ptnljak*atat f Surabaja, East java. This pamiikw merely 
icjuched the open wound wilh his finger* a* h* cDjseemraied, and within recoud* the 
profuse bleeding’ stopped, N"p pressure was applied, and the Weeding stopped before 
normal coagulation lime. The unexplainable teal was witnessed by Howard Alexan¬ 
der, a Lrediiable iiian. 

36. This must be undm-Lasotl to also include some weapon* of tmfad which have been 
adapted in f*nijai-ulat. Such standard weapon* may have taken on special area 
dialect names, 



JAVA and 

I Jit! an army e ft my jut. 


■ Pontjak-ailat 

The Cuff of Indonesian combative arts and the best known of them .lII is 
pentjak-rifat. Though from the historical point of view Sumatra is con¬ 
sidered the original home of this Indonesian fighting art, it was the 
Javanese who brought it to its tec link a] zenith and who were responsi¬ 
ble for its wide development. Java today has the hulk of the many styles. 

Insofar as Java is concerned r pentjak'SUat perhaps first developed in 
its western to central portions, ft owes its peculiar Styles there (o the 
direct influence of Sumatran comba lives {see Chapter 3) P which in 
turn had been greatly affected by continental Asian patterns. 

The so-called Sunda tilal .is a general trim for pmljak-iital in West 
java. West Javanese forms .ire more appropriately referred to by local 
native names, AH can he identified by the prefix Tjt: tjikampex, 


malaja, and rjtKAEON, Each is a specific system of pentjak-silat f and 
there are numerous more, flic prefix tjt k a Snndancse corruption of 
the word tjai M which means "water from a liver. 1 ' It was chosen to pre¬ 
fix the names of fighting systems in YVcst java because originally many 
of those systems were developed in the lowland basin areas. Today this 
is no longer precisely true, for the lji systems arc to be found on the 
innermost high plateaus and even in the mountain ranges of Central 
and West Java. The prefix tji was always suffixed by a word which 
identified an animal, the characteristics of which make up the distinc¬ 
tive mechanics of the system. 1 Thus fathuj (bat) t (tiger), uttr 

[. t radition liana that pcnijat-silitr Hyp* lake much form front ihe*tifdi« of priests 
[ptndiia) who used lo iludy animal aciioru. Cim tuned with varittas medLEahtui pm., 
l uiei, • jfmcrJj j in nlrtrVMitr of religious practices, the animal actions gave cht priests 
the necessary skills lo |jroretc themselves. The retort ion beiwiren Indian mmfcq and 
liLdocirstan combukr actions remains to be imere fully investigated. 


snakt'!, and still others arr combined with the prefix tjt to become the 
proper names oifwtjak-iilat systems based on animat actions, 

The chief tji styles arc found in the mountainous area of West Java 
between Bogor and Rand 0 tig. They arc all identified by llir fact that 
they have less frontal contact with the enemy during combat than do 
most of the other pftiijak-nial styles on Java. Circular action in evasion is 
their key method, In some training sessions, tjt style experts who obtain 
a l 'touch 11 on the trunk of their training partner are victor*, A high 
dependence upon the hands arid arms is thus necessary ibr parrying and 
blocking actions which makes this evasion workable. Mental discipline 
runs high in all TJI SVStents which additionally heighten physical skills 
by periodic: fasting requirements. It is believed that through the rigors 
of fasting a new ,L inncr [lower” wall develop and be released. Prayer is 
also invoked and brings West Java pmljabjilal close to religion. 

$ imda iitat is also called Bandung si tat, which in turn is sometimes 
loosely referred l[) as or ’’to do pQ." Po implies "firll-dclense."' 

Still other titular identifications itiay be heard in West Java, luch as 
“ptnlcha" and or ^pfntjak beltiu<r t " all of which relate 

specifically to the tjimandf. style, 

Tjijmande centers on the Tjiawi area, but was developed prior to the 
twentieth century in the Sukabumi region of Tjtsarua nearby. The 
founder, Kair i deceased). developed an outstanding pupil, Atma, who 
is a leading teacher today. Atma in currently a Tjiliwung tea-plantation 
worker whose sixty-odd years fail to lessen his a maxing and graceful 
skill. The best young stylists ate found in the city of Tjiandur {which 
also hosts the best tjikalong otponenm). 

TjtMAMOE is mainly an arm-hand system but also cuo use leg and foot 
tactics with considerable force and effect; however, kicks arc restricted 
in low large! areas and are most often straight frontal attacks. The 
TjiMA^Dt, tighter posit ions himself with elbow’s held in close to his body, 
ope n hands or closed fists, and makes circular actions with bis hands as 
lie; advances. His posture is usually a deep crouch (Fig. H) ( made from 
widely spaced feet, knees bent, body held upright. This positioning and 
resultant movement comes from the practice ol cautiously placing the 
leet from l ifted leg positions, its if stepping over wet places -recall that 
ur initial TJI Styles were -developed in river-basin areas). TJTMANDE form 
requires a proximity to the enemy generally not seen in other 
silai forms. Characteristic of the moment of dosing with the enemy is 
the stumping of the rear foot into the turf {Fig, 9); and by use of clever 
hand-unbalancing actions the tjimande exponent will turn the enemy's 
attack into a harmless direction (Fig. 10). The blow from [he T[I- 
HaKpE fighter’s arm is devastating. FIc has developed enough power in 
it to smash coconuts, concentrating the force of the blow not into the 
little linger edge of the hand las do Japanese karate-do exponen ts) but 
into the wrist {top, botlom, and sides). 

All basic tjimxnof. tactics consider a minimum of three “ 1 ‘ 



closing in on the operator; taler as skill increases* Five* eight* and even 
twelve are dealt, with effectively, 

Tjtsiande gives great emphasis to weapons’ study. The staff {%«), 
Ihr forked hem truncheon [tjabdng), the short knife Iftisax), ihr long- 
hladed knife [parent), and the heavy cleaver knife [goitk) are all studied 
seriously. Figure M illustrates the use of tin- gai<*k. A special weapon* 
however, is the small throwing knife ipim, see Fig. 24), perhaps Ixtr- 
rowed From kujsias forms. 

Tjikalonc is a style highly similar to tjjmande since it borrows its 
technical hast from the tatter sourer. Founded also in Sukabumi it has 
a long history. 1 Its chief differences from T]lMANDv; lie ill the manlier of 
hand-andkarm actions. Whereas tjemanije may employ the list, Tjr- 
KM.ii-m prefers the open hand; the former style blocks with an unsup¬ 
ported arm {big. 12) while the latter system supports its blocking metii- 
ber from underneath by use of" the free-arm hand (Fig. 13), 

TjiwAJttsotN is. still another system derived from tjimanuk. It has a 
peculiar up-and-down movement it] stance and displacement which is 
executed twice while standing on one leg, arms spread. This is done only 
in practice training {ptrtijok) to strengthen the legs* increase the sense of 
balance* and to improve mobility. The form is rarely displayed. 

2. By Chtm 4 legend it is said to have bwn burn wlu-n j kunSun dttuonslral ed 

his |j»ai skill in dodging blowpipe missiles, MaJsy iiutlctiL^ floefced to hts side io learn 
El us training uli i!*li k Is, 


12, Two view* of Mooting bn (ht Tj.iflafltidt ibyk. 

£3. Two viowa of blocking in ih-n TiilcaJong itylc. 


14, From a "iitiLnjt” posmre (trft), springing up {itnitt Ic deliver a Kaitd 

.iiL^rk (ri^J ) in the TjingkrLk «> Ic. 

An evasive style with East, powerful open-hand actions is the iju 
NOKJtiK. Footwork is the key lo the acrobatic action required by this 
system. One important tactic (but also common to oilier ptnljat-silat 
forms) is the ability to move from a standing position to a low “sitting 1 ' 
ptiftlurc and thru suddenly spring np to deliver an attack (usually 1 with 
the hards, Fig. E4), The tactic is thought to have evolved from the 
crude :■ ii'.'ji 1 Mr lay u forms to the Sumatran Menangkabau combat 
musters who brought it to a high degree of finesse. There are Iwti aspects 
to ihis Lactic; 1 Ifin the sinking action of the body the moving leg is 
carried liehird the platform leg (Kig, 15), the position is termed 
smfmk; carrying the moving leg in Eiront of die platform leg creates a 
similar J 'sitting’ 1 posture known as depok. The action is light, quick, and 
deceptive, It requires strong and Hobble hips and legs. Proper hand 
action imitates the vicious grabbing, rending, and (caring attacks com¬ 
mon to wild monkeys, made as a direct counter after parrying or block¬ 
ing; common targets are the throat, face, and groin. The system uses 
the standard weapons of pcnljak^iiltit but favors the pimu and the gofok, 

3. Si i umimori is this Uu: Lee lu many uther penijai - 1 ilui forms ihsil die ftround-ssiunfl 
fuaiurc ihould be Lanifullv undcrsloocf It will jippwar in v«riout dnrriplionp of 
ptMijok-tiidt ihroughjuut this book. 




15, Assuming thf Tjirtj^trtk tim/foJk (‘‘silling"} pos1urp H in- 
four slaves. 


Silat Muiti ka Kwitang, or more commonly kwitasg sil&t, is a practi¬ 
cal system featuring powerful attacks and dynamic evajionary measures, 
Thr lounder of the system is unknown. The head teaching rrsponEibili- 
lies arc currently In the hands ofZakaria in Djakarta. kyfttano silat uses 
a curved arm fist to strike into the target- the elbow is never fully ex¬ 
tended so as to avoid a joint-locking counterattack by thr enemy. Pe¬ 
culiar to this system only is the fad that the force of the closed list in 
concentrated into liter last two knuckles (little and ring fingers) by posi¬ 
tioning it in a cocked or slightly curved position (flexed toward or 
against thr thumb). Normally, the fist is delivered on a slightly rising 
vector into the enemy’s itnidsettion, Some open-hand action is used, but 
more likely than not the opened hand is clenched lightly as a Fist just as 
impact is made with the target. 

KwTTaNC -hfof exponents do not concentrate on any particular area 
of the enemy’s body, but if an area is lo be named it would lie below the 
shoulders. Vital points along the center line of the body are all that are 
deemed necessary; this suggests a kuntao influence. All KWfTAlft: ritat ex¬ 
perts are possessed of an extremely bard and calloused heel acquired 
from the many hours of Siam ping it against hard surfaces. This natural 
weapon is effective against almost any anatomical largel. 

Weapons for HWitaNG tiiat are chosen to represent,* balance of types. 
Most important are the gofok, the toys, the pisait, and the tjabang. The 
latter weapon is most expertly handled and ranks among the best per¬ 
formance of tjabang techniques in Indonesia- Figures Iti and 17 show 
unarmed kwitang sr!at technique in defense against the pisau and the 
use of the tjabong in defense against the Utya, respectively. The special 
weapon of kvcitang sits! is the strange fouilitm. Giving the appearance 
of a boat hook, its very name implies “to hook.” The short shaft is 
tipped by a sharp pointed iron spearhead from which projects a small 
hook some few inches below ilie tip; ibr hook points down the shaft. 
The weapon is very effective against the getWr (Fig. 18}, 

Ai Banja™ ng in the Batwkarut village area it is possible to witness the 
use of trances in pfnijak-fiiai training. Also in Gar at, near Bandung, 
another style called sttKAftlOAKO employs trance!ike states to some 

A movement known as PPSI (Fcnatmtn PrnLjak Silat Sclurah Indo¬ 
nesia) has Djakarta headquarters, Founded as an rfibrt to produce a 
national style-synthesis ptnljak-siUt, under the. direction of Major Gen¬ 
eral Kosasib, it is now under the technical guidance of Lien tenant Colo¬ 
nel Soedarjanto, a SETEA IIATI-trained expert. The movement has gained 
great popularity and has integrated many of the tji systems under its 
banner. It began its almost impossible task by bringing together local 
native styles without requiring overstandardination of any firm. The 
result has been both gratifying and productive. The traditional use of 
standard weapons is encouraged, Fjut newer applications with these 
weapons art constantly under investigation. 



36, 17. Kwicarijn ritat technique!: unarmed defense a^tcut iJn’ pum ifre 

tjabang in detents* igalmL the tojm {right). 

Id. The Kvilang riltii km/tium ijwd af*irut ihr gnliA. 


I Li. The lnyiMjgr and sheath oF ITS I . 

PPSI exponents are skilled with three special weapons. One of them,, 
the kujungi (Fig., 19), is a mysttr knife oF wicked design, Another is the 
art/i* (Fig. 20)., a halberd weapon about live Feet in overall length which 
has the peculiar, but useful, feature of a shallow groove running the 
length of the shaft. The groove is in the plane of the blade and tlie 
operator Is able, at a touch, to know exactly where the cutting edge is 
at all times in the intricate manipulations (Fig, 2 3 ). Bui it is the third, 
special weapon, die paku (Fig, 22), which is the PPSI secret tactic. It is 
for experts only. The fiafot is an old weapon which derives from Chinese 
sources I'tlie pi nit) and may he considered as a throwing knife (similar 
iti some patterns of Japanese ihitfikiti) , The original pskv were only two 
or three inches in overall length, sharply pointed at lioth ends. Con¬ 
cealed in the hands or garments, they were thrown in ddense of one’s 
life. This particular short-design feature was a deliberate one. It pre¬ 
cluded the we a [h 3u thrown from being thrown back by the intended 
victim with efFrct; it took great skill lu master the throwing art. Newer 
p/iku how In vogue are commonly from four to six inches in overall 
length and take considerably less skill to deliver effectively. Additionally, 
the newer forms are single pointed, 

Still another strong organizational movement to nationalize the 
penljak-tilai of the country under Otic technical administration is IPSL 
It stands lor Ikatan Pemjak Silat Indonesia, implying "collective Indo¬ 
nesian pentjak-siiat*' bike PPSI it is Muslim directed. Formed in 1947, 
it has Djakarta headquarters under the direction of Rachmnd Sor- 
ronagom. The organization Stands firm on the fact that though all areas 
produce native styles, all Function from common routs. Il believes that 
the technically weak p/rfljak-sitat SLyles 3iiUSE eventualEy Succumb to the 
technically sound forms. It has until now resisted a tendency growing 
within itself to interpret pmijek-fihfl as a Sjiorl tsr game form, well know¬ 
ing that any combative which permits such a modification must in¬ 
evitably suffer the loss of combative vitality, St has secured supporting 
branch agencies in Sumatra, Horneo, and llir Celebes. 


12. Old i Mjt: amcl new '.right) 
iVirnii t*f the I'J^s I 

JAVA aNU Madura 51 

Weapons form an important phase of study among styles 

affiliated to IPS!. It is to be expected that the Muslim devotion to the 
blade would condition the choice of weapons; all the standard types are 
used. Staff (tojio) tactics appear to be mated in the old niai Melayu 
styles in which there is little sliding of the hands la manipulate iht 1 
weapon. Fixed hand positions deliver thrust and wide-looping Trig- 
23) arcitriking attacks. The chain [rank) is the special weapon of many 
of the IPSI ftfntjak-silat farms. This Weapon has its roots in Chinese Loirt- 
bativr tactics. 

Central Javanese paitjak-nlat 3tylcs arc many. A few described will 
serve to show characteristics by which regional differences may be seen, 
The Chinese Catholic Youth Organization which centers in Jogjakarta 
is an active source of a pmljak-sUat style known as i-kjsae hakti >>f.risai 
sahkti), The name implies “holy shield. 1 '* It is an interesting synthesis of 
Javanese ptMjak-silai forms and Japanese combattves and quasicomba- 
lives {JajulfU f judo, and karate^dg) superimposed On a Chinese Jiiff Itm 
base. 1 Founded in 3946 by j. Wirijiharliini nf Jogjakarta, FftHAI iAKFI 
is a balanced combative Ibnm which demonstrates a concern for realism. 
As n modern form il is connected both to Christian religion and Indo¬ 
nesian nationalism, stressing a philosophy called Trii-Sakti. r Fhe ele¬ 
ments of this triad are simple and each member is sworn to uphold them 
in the proper balance: 

1} —devotion to Christian God 
2} prngurbanan —scLf-will to Sacrifice 
3; ktSetitim —loyalty to tile nation 

4. Pori Live Chinwr influence from South Chin* tn mdrnaid by iJic ust af I'ui-ho 
(stork style). Auivi-j nunrjiit-iio, .liuI uiIut tiu.'th&n.ical w ttimmun la Khv area 
(Canton) Chir.i'w combative*. Widjihartaaii himavffnan accomplished tunli™ muErr 



J J ] AL 


-■t S|-H!Lia3 wraponB of Filial ailat. 

Prisai iari permits of no spotting applications- It follow) no ml t-s 
which cpuld give it ;i sporting way of competition, lor h regards all of 
its purposes as combative responses to combative situations. Naturally 
daring early training, ihr formative period especially^ exponents are 
plated under certain training restrictions and controls so that there is 
a mi film imt of injuries. But as skill develops these controls are lessened 
and finally dropped altogether. 

Training begins with exercises that permit the trainee to fall to the 
ground without injury. Like all true pcnljak-sitat forms, rttisAt SAXTt 
falling tactics are made on natural terrain; no protective padding is 
allowed. Hard ground, concrete, tile, paved surfaces, and even field 
areas on which stones lie are "mat" areas Ihr trainees. Even the young¬ 
est exponents, five years ol’ age, are able to take falls from high-speed 
judo throws and jijutsu techniques without requiring mats. 

Due to its emphasis on leg tactics, kicking attacks are studied next. 
Here Chinese influence is identified by the use uf heel-thrusting actions. 
Striking actions made by hands and arms are next. At] common pat¬ 
terns, using both open and dosed hand formations, are studied Arm 
actions are somewhat longer than those seen in most pmtjuk iilal forms 
of the area. Some joint locking techniques i Japanese judo kanthit warn 
and Japanese aikidd locks) are attempted. No choking Japanese judo 
shin w wata) is considered. Must grappling situations arc resolved by 
holding the Opponent helpless, by arm locking and or striking, 

The weapons used in prism sarti j Hat are not different from the 
standard weapons normally employed* But three additional ones are 
considered special for the system (Fig. 24;: One, the pfndjepit, a small 
mclal pincher, can be jabbed into the enemy to rip or twist the flesh 
Two, the nashr far gangtdttg„ a specially prepared chain, is used to whip 
or ensnare the enemy. Three, the/haci, a queerly shaped piece of metal, 
is thrown at the enemy (similar to Japanese shurikm discoid types}. 


The underlying application of this ptnijak-siltti aysiem is defensive in 
nature; It trains the operator in !>r seif-reliant, courageous, and ori¬ 
ginal in combative situations. Everything is studied and used as a weap¬ 
on acul, with die standard weaponry of pentjak^sil&i serving as its guide, 
PftESAl SAtTI rtpciU are encouraged to develop new drsigns and means 
of employ men i. 

Training requires that die trainee progress through a scheduled rank 
system. In order of ascending seniority the ranks are visually identified 
by red, black, blue, gray, and orange belts. The ranks are not over¬ 
emphasized and are awarded on die basis of the master's judgment of 
the pupil’s reudincss for the belts, Training is open to both sexes and 
there is emphasis on the teaching of youth, Tins combative form finds 
grrat popularity iR-cause of its traditional past, which it reflects as a 
synthesis with the modern age. Ii has pledged its tactics to the glory of 
the nation's drive for independence, and this appeal continues as tEic 
country emerges from its .antique puSL and moves rapidly toward ;i posi¬ 
tion of international leadership. 

SeUa hah rilat |known ax S-hah] is an important combative form in 
Central Java. The name implies "faithful heart," including the con¬ 
cepts of both "love and faith in one’s self." This core system has given 
birth to several modified forms such as SETt a hati quoA^AHJ (faithful 
heart organization), and the setia hati ter ate (sec East java, p. bQ). 
All sm a hati ritat systems are rooted in the tactics of the Menatigkabau 
of Sumatra (see Chapter 3, p. 124), especially those stemming from the 
fading area pcnljnk stint t all of winch are unmistakably \1 outngkabait 
in origin. 

Setia ItA-n _f Hut employs the hands and arms primarily for blocking, 
covering, parrying, and evading the enemy. Keyed by the LH soft" style 
turtles, setia hati exponents rely upon speed of reaction and anticipa¬ 
tion of the enemy’s attack. Yielding to the enemy includes "beating him 
to the punch’ 1 to score on the target prior to his strength climax against 
the operator. There appears to be a very definite delicateness to ail 
maneuvering, Training is carried out mainly by the use of prearranged 
patterns called frtntiaiitnti t or "arranged action"' (tmi unlike the Japanese 
kata training method)* The trainee is engrossed in tatinan training,' and 
build* hi* skills sq that they stand Coupled lor effective use, nnt a* isolated 
reactions to combative situations (the process is called ktm&angau, im¬ 
plying "variation”}. Hand actions are made effective by the widespread 
ability of its experts to operate the "dolls’ 1 for the igqptmg kuiit, or 
"shadow play,” art. This art form requires defines* of hands which 
stands in good stead in ptnijak-itlai. 

Kicking actions are quick and efficient t making full use of all possible 
footwork combination*; remarkable flexibility is evidenced in the 
manner of "round-house" kicking tactics, Experts will often evade and 
maneuver around behind their enemy, there to shove hicn into kicking 
range; the spinal area is the target for the kick (Fig. . 


All setia ejati systems are pervaded by a deep spiritual philosophy 
which takes them beyond purely physical exercise [ktbalhinan or kero* 
thanian, and respectively), setia hati exponents will be found 

all over the Length and breadth of Java. Especially notable in Central 
Java are the persatriaN' uati, or “union of heart, 1 ’ and the tung&al 
!IATI t or “only one heart / 1 styles. 


26. Buna rital pOitliTM: “a girt ramliinft her iLSir 1 " 
{ataw) i J 'an akc-dragnn' 1 (ngkt } r 

Central Java also hosts the bima (Budojs Indonesia Matnrm) nisi 
movement. The name Juggrsts "culture place of Indonesia 1 ' and the 
style is characteristically active. Postures take unusual forms and arc 
interestingly named [Fig'. 26}: "a girl combing her hair’" and "snake- 
dragon.Ground ml ting tactics and high-lea ping abilities are com¬ 
mon in this fighting form, silat putra, or "junior ttlai" is a style 
which caters to the youth of Central java. The ciiame'aka ti'tiej, or 
"white flower," rilat form centers on the Tjikalmn area ol Central 
Java but extends to Jogjakarta, It is an unusual style which sees the 
operator Cfaucli very low to the ground. Spinning an one foot, the Other 
leg extended„ CHAMPAKA PUTIU experts gr nerate enough power to kiiixli 
the feet out from under art unsuspecting for. By the use of stntpak and 
depQk postures, it Loo identifies its Mcnangkabau roots. 

The tap ax si.'Tjt system, founded in 1963 by the then seven ty-two- 
ycar-old Ifan Barijam [Fig, 27), is an interesting fighting form. Com¬ 
mon to Central Java, the name implies various meanings, such llS root 
“white,'holy/ 1 or hand—“holy/nacred,'' and perhaps step- "sacred." It 
is a highly active and complicated system. 


27. Ifati Batijmm, founder of the Tapal 
Su.[ji jysirm, 

Tapax sutji borrows heavily Emm other ptnijak-rUat forma, but addi¬ 
tionally makes use of a peculiar never-static posture. It requires constant 
and energetic movement of the Operator, who revolves or turns almut 
his own axis every lew seconds (Tig. 28). As such it is a highly evasive 
Ibrtn and muse h r. perplexing to ail enemy, perhaps even amusing, as the 
dervhhlike antics may lead him It? wonder what will happen next. 
Staying at long range is tailor-made for (he tapak sutji expert who may 
be more troubled by thr rnrmy who bores in for close infighting. 

The training methods of tap a k sutji make use of outdoor areas, the 
mountains and seashore being favored (Fig, 29), All training takes 
place on natural terrain and padded surfaces, are not permitted. High¬ 
speed falls from powerful throws, similar to Japanese judo kata^urumn, 
tithi-tnatd, nsota-gari, are safely performed uti natural terrain. 

Weaponry follows the usual standard types of puntjak^silai. But addi¬ 
tionally iwhak sutji applies two special weapons: One, the Japanese 
two-handed, single-edged sword (Jtrhfiwa') is studied, though it is em¬ 
ployed Fig. 30) in a fashion which has little if any relation with the 
Intended Japanese tactics. Two, a weapon called the ugti (Fig. 31}, 
meaning “common usage/" is a mrial truncheon with a short f1cxiE>le 
racial shaft a bit over one foul in Irnglli. It is used to strike sensitive 
areas on the arms and lie ad of the enemy. The segu is also sometimes 
called strba or guna. 

Striking by hand in the manner of Japanese Acr rait-da exponents and 
kicking tactics also follow a similar pattern, with the added use of a 
whirling sickle or reaping action of the legs from the btmpok or dtpuk 
posture. Because ol its extremely energetic action, almost all tapak sutji 
exponents arc youthful, 


£fl, Ptnijak aciLun in Tapak Sutji. 

* - 

" 5 - 

29. The outdoor training on nn.inr.iL ;<• tta i n ofTapak Surji. 

ftS WEAPONS and hchting arts 

!SH. Thr use of the JafTirteje swo-ttH i.tfl/nJi'JiT■ |fi Tipak Skilji. 

11- The i-cgu Hif TapaJi Swiji, 

Java and MAbtiJcA 68 

Iii East Java is found an offshoot of setia hah known aa setia hati 
Tt.RATE. Il la an important fighting form Completely under Muslim in- 
flucnce It was originally known as Sedulur Ttmggai Ketjer in 19Q3* 
when founded by Ki Xgabehi Soertjdiwirjo [Pak S-ocro) in Surabaja. 
In 19]7 the founder moved to WinofO city near Maduin and* with 
tin: assistance of his most able pupil Hardjouiomo, restyled the system 
as Djuju Gendllo Tjipto Muljo. Eventually the entire form became 
known as setia .hati terate, The system evokes a complex philosophy 
and religious depth in addition to its intricate mechanical basis, 

Setta, implying "faithful, 1 '’ is coupled to hati which means “heart,” 
and the whole of these is attached lo the word TlltATE. The inate is an 
unusual flower that can live with or without water for extended periods 
of lime, and under the most severe conditions. It is a symbol of tenacity 
and hardiness. Thus the name tells nf the underlying basis of setia 
hati ter ate, that of being a self-perpetuating entity which will never 
know death. Each person entering its teachings must swear to abide by 
an oath in which the following conditions arc mandatory: 

]) lo worship God [gertagwa kepada tvhan) 

2) to commit no adultery [tak bvith menuak pagmaju) 

3] to support the national government {tak bo!em rrwnenlangptmtrin- 
tahjotiang sjak palith pad& ptTslurMundang-pentummndmg) 

4* to think before acting {iak bolth takabur) 

5} to love all persons [harna tukiai dengtm stsama. mamtiil ) 

6) to recognize and respect the founder (mengaApu Pak Soeru 

itbttgar itindam lua) 

7) to use mutual discussion of personal problems with members 
{knlm ada kal-kot jang pintina—mfrunlinj kan dtngtSri idudaTatfrdikdi) 

Training in setia hati terate begins with physical skills, such as 
balance, posture, movement* evasion* and striking actions. Little me¬ 
chanical difference from other fitntjak-jilat forms exists^ but as expertise 
develops there are some unusual features which help make up this 
combative measure. The expert depends Irss upon physical contact and 
more upon evasive skills made possible by hypnosis applied against bis 
enemy; coupled with deftness of hand actions, the operator subdutt his 
enemy. Anticipation of the enemy's actions or potential actions by a 
rapid analysis of the posture being taken lead* the SETIA hati terate 
expert to physical success in personal encounters. One’s enemy is never 
despised, even in combat, but is rather to be "loved" as a human bring. 
But since the hetta hati tiirate expert has not been aggressive, he is 
rationalized as “right 1 ' by his defensive approach to combat; that is* hr 
fights under and fora "just cause." He will be victorious as he abides by 
the “right makes might" appeal, 

A large dependence upon leg actions makes up this lighting art, 
Approximately 75 percent of all tactics invoke the leg in ways other 


l!2. Hie tjulul ufFistia Hall Teraie. 

than lor displacement. Yet the system gives the appearance of being 
wdl balanced in that it considers all forms of attack, as well m how to 
cope with them. Developed from the wanderings, of its founder through 
China* Sumatra, Borneo* and Java, setia hati ter ate has come to be 
a synthesis system with a fondness for a bladcd weapon* the tj&tuk 
(Fig. 32), a. short knife of Muslim vintage. It is a special biaded instru¬ 
ment with a devastating potential recalled by John, Pierpnnt’s words: 

A weapon that comer 
down as stilt 
as snowflakes fall 
upon ike sod. 

The design of the knife brings into play a reverse cutting edge, making 
at extrrmcly difficult to block or parry without sustaining injury. The 
ijaluk is at its best In close combat. .Surprise, such as required for assas- 
si nation, is the keynote of its application Carried concealed in loose- 
fitting garments or in a wide ssnsh, the tjtiiuk can rapidly be brought into 
play. It is about one-third smaller than the average Javanese arif (see 
Fig. 50). Other weapons used in setba HAT! TERATE training are iden¬ 
tical with the standard pentjak-iifat types. 

The ability to apply hypnosis effectively to the enemy is a special skill 
of which only the expert in this lighting Fijrm is capable, By such means 
the expert is able to distract and attenuate the enemy’s reactions which 
might otherwise be brought into effective action against the operator. 
R. M, Itnan KussLsp.i Ngot of Maduin is such an expert. A tall* 
swartby-complexiored man, Iman carries an aura of mysticism about 


him E was asked to stand fating him. In my right hand I was toEd to 
hoJd a bamboo sliver some ten inmht's in leiigth„ Grasping it lightly in 
a vertical position, most of its length protruding from (he top of my 
hand, I faced Imam He had positioned himself about two feet in front 
of me. He instructed me to jerk the bamboo out of his reach at the 
slightest move meat hr might make In grasp the sliver. I waS to anticipate 
or use whatever reactions I possessed to prohibit It is. grasping the sliver. 
He was prepared to demonstrate the power of hypnosis over me, "beat¬ 
ing me Id the punch" SO to Speak, by taking the sliver away from me 
before 1 could react- We looked each other squarely in the ryes. 

There were silent si arcs, both of us Obviously alert and anticipatory. 
Eye contact maintained] suddenly Emnn was clutching the sliver ... I 
had not seen him move! fie asked me to try again. Ten times I. did try 
and only three limes did I succeed in evading his grasp. Each successful 
attempt left me searching for gimmicks tie used ip Accomplish his feat. 
] found only two possible answers: one, [hat he would attack when 1 
was inhaling; or two, that he would attack when I broke eye contact 
by blinking. 

Then he reversed the procedure.. He held the stiver and I was to take 
it away from him. Ten tries,, three successes also. Again [ sought ex¬ 
planations and found that he was trying to hold the sliver a maximum 
distance from my body, causing me to approach imbalance when 1 
moved- Regardless of how he managed, his demonstration was impres¬ 
sive, He had lightning fast reactions, as fast as any man I have ever met. 
(I know of several professional magicians who can do similar feats but 
who cannot best me in reflexes required under combative conditions. 
It is certain that Email's expertise as a w&y&ng kuht artisan plays an i m¬ 
portant role in his quickness ofeye and deftness of band actions.) 

This hypnotic power (or whatever) was carried, according to I man, 
into combat, and one of the leading reason! why setia ieati tbrate 
was superior to other pentjak-silat forms in actual fighting was because 
of this hypnosis factor. I man identified other qualities of the system. It 
was, important, he said, to disregard physical strength (and here 1 felt 
he was referring to my obvLuuS advantage over Ihm). While a tall man 
himself, he Stands a willowy six feet* arid is not the slightest hit bulky in 
a muscular sense- His handgrip, however, belies his stature; jl is im¬ 
mensely powerful lman explained that the siial of SJ5TIA HATI TKRATE 
is based on self-belief, bravery, quickness of eye, and on the element of 
surprise over the enemy. Eye perceptions must be trained to the utmost 
degree to observe the enemy and apply tactics according to the weak¬ 
nesses determined in his posture and mental attitude, Iman compared 
his demonstration of hypnosis, in which we bad mutually participated, 
directly with combative ability to attack me wit boo I a chance of suc¬ 
cessful defense on my parr. 

However explainable, I man's demonstrations had been convincing, 
lire hypnosis of which he speaks perhaps exists, but at least lie was 


applying an optimum level of a '‘sixth sense' 1 (akin w the Japanese 
martial art quality of Jf^-rew it»M). Iman continued and by analogy be 
revealed the product of training in sen* hati tulate: *Tfwc walk along 
the street and suddenly an object such as a ball strikes us, we are startled; 
we may even feet pain due to its impact. However, if we were before¬ 
hand prepared for that eventuality and if we additionally see the ball 
coming, we are not startled, nor do we experience eI ir slightest pain. 1 ' 
stTiA hat i terate endeavors iu prepare its trainees for all circum- 
stances in combat. By means of this preparation, it develops a mental 
set or readiness of a high order, 

Setia It ATT It: RATE expounds lofty ideals and plans to Spread its 
teachings to all interested societies, for their b e t term ent. Its popularity 
is confined to Muslims in Indonesia, and it has gathered intellectual 
support. All exponents are visually ideniified by a system of colors worn 
on display as sashes around (heir practice costumes. The lowest color is 
a blank or neutral shade; pink, green, and white follow in ascending 
orders of skill. Oil reaching the white bell one is considered to have 
completed the firsl grade of skill. 'The seCnnd grade is an intermediate 
achievement Level and the third is. the highest possible award. I man was 
such an expert. 

Near the Madum area of East Java bs a dominant rural pentjak'Sil&t 
style of the Ponorogo village called df.i.ima. Named after a kind of huh, 
this fighting form was founded by a man named Binpadgar. Its tactics 
have become the common property of all inhabitants of the Ponorogo 
area; even small children are seen to practice its techniques, A real 
freedom of expression is permitted by this form, The result has been a 
comprehensive, realistic, and martially balanced combative develop¬ 
ment. Styled first in 1^43 to be employed against the Dutch colonialists 
on Java, delima today refrains from nationalistic appeals. 

Delima siitit is based on a substantial amount of kicking, largely heel 
thrusts from a pivotal rear-facing position; these techniques recall its 
Chinese ancestry. .Sickle anions of the legs also are favored from dtpok 
and sempvk positions. An expert, SLtcIi as Binpadgar, can whirl about 
like a champion ice skater with otic leg extended from a crouch Fig- 
33). Rear kicks are almost always double action -one last kick com¬ 
ing aflrr a very slight delay from the initial kick. The operator never 
bothers to refacc his enemy after tin: first kick, but .seeks immediately in 
rekick »rid then steps away fast before turning in face the enemy. 

Open hands are favored {sometimes semiclrnched fists! over closed 
fists and ate used for deception in graceful movements. AH anatomical 
weakticsscs of the enemy are exploited and no area is favored over 
any other. 

There is much Leaping and dodging done in connection with ihe 
movements designed to defeat an enemy, ail appearing to lit- tiring if 
performed for protracted periods of time; the ability required by this 
system is anticipatory of -weapons attacks. 


14. The fxdm& oF Delltna liiat. 


Weapons hi the deuma nisi system repertoire center on the use of the 
itya and thr pedang (Fig. 34), a short sword. The tactics involving the 
t&ya depend upon an almost baton-twirling type skill. Quarter-staff 
striking, pushing, blocking, and parrying actions arc used, with little 
reversal of the staff considered necessary. The expert operator tan re¬ 
volve the staff, operating it around its tenter of balance, like a pro¬ 
peller; he Lar balance it on his head, shoulders, back, arms, and even 
his thighs as it revolves at a fast rate (Fig. 3h). The pedong is not unlike 
a ittdihett, being principally an agricultural tool. This weapon is used in 
the fashion of empty-hand actions. Usual training pits the use of the 
leva, pfdang, and empty-hand actions against one another in varying 
combinations (Figs. All (raining begins early. Both boys and 

girls (Fig, 39) participate, and by the age of twelve tliey have mastered 
she empty-hand fundsmentals from which weapons employments must 
be applied. Training sessions last about two hours and the average 
native trains four hours per week^ agricultural and domestic chores 
preclude more dedication, 


06 waAPOJts ash fighting arts 

4ft. I hf fault ii( I jelirnji .uiad. 


Pi act ice combat witnessed the fact that the staff is a weapon of ad¬ 
vantage over the ptdang. Because of its length the staff delivered heavy 
blfuwii to the btadesman attempting to enter for the “kill.” However, 
[he staff operator was forced several Limes to leap high in the air to 
avoid low slashes, The black 1 operator suffered numerous blows to liis 
body in tbc process. 

Among the Chinese-inherited weapons of OEttstA ji Hat is a spec ial one, 
the ranted nr weighted chain. Its length is eqttivalent to that of the staff 
and all techniques are those of the staff. Centrifugal force keeps the 
chain stiff and straight in Right patterns as it approximates the stafT in 
whirling about, obeying similar laws. The spinning chain is a blurred 
object a? it hums through the air. The expert balances it and moves it 
around his anatomy just like the staff. A juggling skill is needed to make 
this weapon effective. Most favored lengths of the rtinte are from five to 
six feet, with about two-ounce weight* fastened to each md (Figs. 40, 
41). The linkage is of one-quarter inch circular or elliptical-patterned 
iron rings. 


Dk4-IMA -'Hat has nor considered the necessity of a tanking system. 
With a purely combative purpose, il is common knowledge in the village 
win? the masters arc (the strongest fighters] find they make alt (he re¬ 
maining exponents students. The training costume is not unlike the 
usual pmljak-silai costume insofar as cut of cloth is concerned, Called 
bn ml, it is, however, brightly colored, using preen trousers and a white 
blouse like- jacket with red piping. An orange sash holds the jacket 

East Java penljak-jilat styles, such as sucki hati (holy heart) and vtak 
(E nglish meaning is literal) which actually stem from Central Java, 
have some popularity. r I"hey emphasize the htlatlwi, or protect ion .'de¬ 
fense of self, 1 ' type of combat which offers no sporting applications. The 
national organization, Silat Organaai (S.O.), is located in Surabaja. 
Originally pcntjuk-iilut experts and their various styles founded an or¬ 
ganization, tn 1920, which attempted to combine the various Muslim 
systems. They enjoyed no national prestige until 1947, when they joined 
S.O. Under the technical guidance of Ali Al-habsi, these systems loo 
emphasize the btladui aspect of ptntjak-silat. 

Perhaps the pfntjak-sitat form gaining moat popularity and national 
acclaim is that of the FMitSAi mm (prisai dihi). The name implies “self- 
shield’* and is most commonly referred to as P.D It is a modern gener¬ 
ative cognate of Central Java pentjak-silat styles. Though a modern 
movement with its beginning in 1955, its technical and philosophical 
roots must be understood to stem from antiquity. It is argued that its 
origin was Jogjakarta in Central Java, but efforts there were won 
termed “imperfect start' 1 and general credit must be given to the 
founder, living in the Surabaja areaj R.M.S, Dirdjoatmodjo (Fig. 42), 
who gave P.D, its vital essence. He is regarded as a pandtkar, 

F.D. is a synthesis of various prnljak-sHat styles but stands aloof from 
taking onto its technical self the foreign ideas of Japanese judo, aikido f 
karatt-do, and jujutsu a$ well as Western boxing tactics that have influ¬ 
enced many pat^jak-s\Lst forms today. P D restricts itself to Legitimate 
indigenous ptnijnk-stini tactics, confident that among those lie sufficient 
responses for all combative -situations. It is, however, almost completely 
devoid of West Java and Menangkabau tactics involving the dtpok and 
yanpok postures. 

Considerable national support is given toP.D, in the form of recogni¬ 
tion of its Lac tics as the basis of self-defense training for army, navy, and 
marine personnel. F.D. boasts some 75,000 members throughout Indo¬ 
nesia. Headed by eight master teachers [maha guru) and a host of other 
teachers (jvra), F.D. has international branches in France and Italy. 

Its exponents arc identified by the traditional use of the short trousers 
with leg lengths extending halfway below the knees; the jacket is lapel¬ 
less and the sleeves are just above the wrists. The color of all costumes is 
white for experts and black for trainees. The black color was exclusive 
to the noble warrior class in ancient and medieval times. 


4?. ft. M„ E. ThTxJuNUmadjo, the 
fmimfercf P^rwJ Diri. 

The jams, or “fundamental*,* 1 arc the basis of P.D. training. They arc 
required of the trainee in a progressive fashion and teach him to employ 
widely spaced footings to develop strength and flexibility in hips and 
legs. More advanced exerts., however, are recognized by the narrow - 
ness of their stances. There is very little use of the kadn-kuda [similar to 
the Japanm kafate-do kibfriidthr) so commonly used in West Java styles, 
though it is recalled that in the younger days of P.D. style all teachers 
insisted Oil its use, 

StraighL-line striking is valued •„ the fist is “screwed in” as it ap¬ 
proaches its target. Thrusting, striking, blocking, covering, parrying, 
and distracting with arm-and-banri actions follow a “half-movement 1 ' 
or restrict erf action of the hands. Kicking is primarily made in straight- 
line fashion, deliveries being mode ra front nr rear; some pivotal kicking 
is managed. No so-called round-house kicks are employed, such as in the 
fashion of maivaihi^gtn of Japanese karait-dd. Emphasis is placed on 
thrust-kicking with the heel, testifying to some Chinese roots. Some 
terms used to identify P.D. tactics arc: 

bukulan —to strike with the fist 
Ultdarlgtitt to kick ur knee 
itpuan— to parry 

totak -to thrust with Jbreknuckle (thumb support), delivering the 
action first to the solar plexus and then sliding the thrust into 
the throat area by continuing the force upward 


Kicking fictions arc identified by a variety of tactics. The basis: otic is 
llir if (western Sumatran origin with a Chinese root); the leratai, or the 
Shadin "lotus-flower” kirk; the gcdjelig, or “dowti-ihrusL kick with the 
whnk foot”; the limiting, or “otter kick”; the mbit, nr “sitle-us-Kidc 
kick" (sometimes known as an instep kick) ; the idosor , or “snap-kirk 
frontal to groin”; the sahit tumit, or “heel thrust' 1 ; and rarsfoa, or "re- 
verse sickle-heel kick,” are all more advanced tactics to 1M). trainees. 
The last named is a very effective and dangerous western Sumatran 

Peculiar tactics of P,D. include the pan (pronounced paw) which is n 
shoulder block made forceful by economic breathing; the strangm 
panfat, or “buttotk attack/* by which a rear-oriented opponent is lust 
t] li tted with a bump from the gluteus muscles i, reported on ns “Mace¬ 
donian Buttock* 1 by j. Gilbey iti Scent Fighting Arts uj the World) and as 
he doubles up, the back of the operator’s head is thrust difeetty back¬ 
ward into the opponent's face. The melingkar or ktbtiaiang is a wide 
pivoting action around the side of the enemy which is evasive and pro 
li mi miry to counterattacking {Fig- 43), 

1 .ike many of the Indonesian combative measures F.D- movements 
arc derived from the study of nature, especially animal responses and 
actions. Mechanics of movement and the stances from which all move¬ 
ments derive arc scicntideally designed. Movement is more straight- 
line than that seen in most other penijak-silat forms, and is made to 
harmonize with the Stanc e and displacements of the enemy. Postures ill 
JM3. art identified as: 

1) melium —swallow 

2) gamda eagle 

3) kariman —tiger 

4) iingsaag —otter 

5) stiria —patriot 

6) Sfiria hiiian —palriut-fbrcst 

7) ktidti kitningan —horse 

8) naga —dragon 

9) —priest 

10) puin —princess {lady) 

a) puin berstdia —ladies in preparation 

b) pain nmbhjiiTtg —worshiping ladies 

e) ptilti bnhias —ladies dressing 

d) pntri je^iafl^—pair of lowers 

11) burling kimtut— critic positioned on one leg with body in .i 

“T” formation 

Ptiitjak-silai'i standard weapons all liud use in P.D. In training the 
ptdtmg, the short sword, titiliaes the Chinese then (straight blade, double 
cutting edged) variety (Fig. 44), flm it is in the special weapons calc- 


4.1. Evaskili AiLtl i •:-li 11 Ls-rrbl czn- k. uajng (h*< . 

44. 3 he Liar r J CJaiilrw iweldi icfntn) rn Prrisijj Diri. 


gory that strange and effective weapons are also found (Fig. 45). The 
mi Jb/tR^ a “knuckle-duster” weapon not unlike the head of the World 
War I trench knife, is a special; weapon. The itkken and the arbir are two 
more. The farmer appears la hr a Walking cane; the latter, a halberd- 
type weapon (see fe-uihaj turn, Chapter 4, p. 17Et). 

P.D. uses the prearranged form method for training. It is spoken of as 
rakasit i (secrets) and is used to mold the precise responses to combative 
situations. It is similar in nature to 1 he Japanese kata. Training sessions 
an- usually one hour in duration, twice a week for the first year, after 
that once a week h considered sufficient. 

P.D. trainees must build; 1) technical precision;2) speed; 3) reaction 
time; 4) power (physical strength); 5) patience, and 6) quiessencc. 
In this ordrr of precedence the trainees develop to maturity tn the sys- 
tern. The search for these achievements begins by basic mechanical 
drills in posture, striking, kicking, evading, blocking, parrying, cover¬ 
ing, and other exercisea, all performed without weapons; weapons arc 
added later as (he rmpty’barid skills appear sound. Attention is given 
to the development or * footer strength,” that is, the development of the 
physical muscles of the body by continuous practice. No resistive ex¬ 
ercises are performed except those of a quasi-isometric nature performed 
around stances and postures wherein gravity is the resistance. Last to 
develop in the trainees is the "inner power, 1 ' the spiritual strength 
which is the mark of the master (pwidekar). 

P.D. exponents demonstrate their concentration by regarding the 
enemy's body as an inverted triangle, apex at the enemy’s groin. The 
midsection of this triangle receives the greatest concentration of the 
attack (Fig. 46). The P.D. expert will stare directly at the- enemy's 
midsec Lion while engaged in combat with him, and generally avoids 
eye contact. 

At the base of every physical action in P.D, is breathing, or 
(goit'uAflnj'), made toouter-strenglhcn the body {unify it) and to improve 
timing of responses. The breathing is related to medi rational aspects 
which stem from the heart (not the iandtn as is the case in Japanese 
martial-art tradition}. P/D. speaks of the "five centers of spirituality” 
(h'ma 6ofoJt), symbolically represented and to be seen in the organiza¬ 
tional emblem by five stars arranged in pentagonal form [kekathiaan]. 

On the island of Madura, lying just off the northeastern corner of 
Java, resides a group of people (Madurese) who arc renowned all over 
Indonesia as skilled and fearless fighters. Of a volatile personality, the 
Madurese do not hesitate to take recourse to the blade. Their standard 
penSjak-silat form is Pamur, founded in ]95i by Hasan Hubudin, who 
is today regarded as a pantltkar. Pamur makes its headquarters at the 
residence of Hasan Hubudin in Pamckasan. 

The Pamur system is a synthesis product based on a great variety of 
pcnljQk'tilat forms, especially those of Sumatra (sitai Melayu and Me- 
nangkabau). It borrows some of its technical intricacies from Chinese 

72 Weapons and fighting a RTS 



45. Special weapciro of Pcnai Diri. siiai. 


kunfao. Pamur fitat is combatively well balanced and permits no sport¬ 
ing applications, It further makes use of all standard weapons of pentjak- 
silat plus the local agricultural tools, such as the aril (sickle] types that 
have been given combative missions. 

The emblem of Pamur is a shield with a km in the centra! position 
(an undulate blade). On the left of the Jtfjj is the cotton plant; lo ihr 
right lies the rice plant. Both of these vegetable-life forms symbolize 
life-giving substance, Thus combined with the mystic power of the trir, 
the emblem is symbolic of the strength and elastic unity of the system it 

The Pamur n \tai style is termed pentjak antka tan muda raiiomt, or “new 
generation pmtjsk rationale," It is based on a technical bivalency of 
menial and physical techniques. The former are given to trainees only 
after the latter are mastered and then only lo those of the highest moral 
character. However welt knit the system is, it is not yet considered by 
its founder as finalized. Active study is still being conducted with a view 
toward widening its technical structure. 

Hassan Hubudin defines ptrtljak as petitjak gtrakan diri jangterstur, or 
“regulated self-defense movdtttnt"; sitat is defined a;, siiat gtrsksn pum- 
bflan dsn bebas, or “freedom in self-defense movement," This implies 
ptntjak is a means of partner training ih a regulated manner t« avoid 
injuries, but nevertheless setting the functional form fur the technical 
base of self-defense methods. Thus ptatjak is somewhat analogous to 
Japanese kata. Si tat connotes for Haaan either a self-practice with 
complete freedom of expression or an actual engagement with an 
enemy; it is thus akin to the Japanese shsnktn shaba, As pointed out 
earlier, there can be no sikt without penijak; p&itjak unless directed to¬ 
ward functional self-defense is purposeless, 

Pamur sitat is categorized accordingly: 

Mi (feeling) 

I tangkapttti -to catch tlir enemy 

2) bantingang —to throw the enemy 

3j hambtii pukui —to evade, parry, and strike 

4j fwtnbdi mian to kill as a final decision 

tiastir (fundamentals, of which there an- twelve each) 

1) Jutuj —the step-by-step elements 

2) aiis plarian -to dodge and escape 

3) jwmuwkan —the successful entry into the rnemy^s dcfeaise 

4) harimau —the tiger movements such as harimau kutnbtmg, or 

tiger and elephant 

The tangkafian is the most important dement ill the Pamur system. It 
is performed with the open hand, fingers controlling the wrist-arm of the 
enemy, The lw>dy is turned or maneuvered to avoid die main attacking 


47. Weight i.ifi tuth k'K3 ni a Maduraii hmur <rint -1H. The kick used in Maduram F'amur ii!ai. 


forte of the enemy. 'I Jming action Ibi 111as tactic is acute. I be kjllnin 
action pumbas mimt' is only a last resort when ihr preceding three fin) 
have failed. 

Only tin: most physically conditioned can jserfbrm Pamur tactics 
beyond five minutes. The systcin ns highly aerobatic and energetically 
practiced, Considerable use cil dffmk. and .vmfmk positions positively 
relate Pamur to Sumatran (n/af Melayu, Menangkabau, and AljehJ 

Ail stances employ double weighting of the legs Fig. 47) and in dis¬ 
placements, the ftei are slid over the terrain as much as is possible; 
evasion and speed arc- qualities sought. Little reliance is placed on 
physical strength oi resistance to aggression, The underlying mechanical 
principle is Lo move and shill on a circular orbit to avoid strength 
climaxes with the enemy and to avoid ending power by dissipation. The 
use uf gvlgv/ i.i type of percussion music) is sometimes heard, hut is not 

Pamur kicking tactic? arc many and IhrcHut, as most Lame trum 
Mcnangkabau silat styles- They arc delivered accurately from various 
positrons (Fig. 48), even from tfefmk and smpok positions! which arc 
quickly abandoned to deliver the kick. 


49. The Jj'aiiTJijg uf P 4 im ut siSai, 

Standard wtajWfts of ptttijak-silat identify synthesis usage. The staff 
(torn) is used both with fixed and sliding hand positions (characteristic 
of Jt let Melayu and Javanese styles, respectively). Movemenu for push¬ 
ing, blocking, and striking favor fixed hand position*. Some use of one- 
handed gripping at the rod of the staff permits it to be swung down 
against the feel of the enemy in a beating action. There is little use of 
reversal action for striking with alternate ends of the staff. The tjabang 
(Fig. 49), the forked truncheon weapon’ is ikfllfully applied and chosen 
to fit the operator by measuring the shaft to the exact length of the 
operator’s forearm. The shape of this weap<nds tines shows more rec¬ 
tangularly set shoulders than is usual for Javanese types; there is some 
similarity to southern Celebes ijabung design. The space between the 
shaft and the tines is large enough to accommodate a tojya shaft or the 

LyCal-area-typc weapons {Fig. 3t)j include some indigenous to 
Madura nod some which have been transferred from olher areas. 1 he 
aril, or sickle weapon, has many variations on Madura. The fjetxritf 
the huh i ofam (chicken feather); i3lc aril Imffwr (fluent)- and the arit 
biaia (common) arc some of the most types in use. They arc 
all generally longer and more curved in blade design than the ant ol 
Java. Sickle tactics employ both the single blade or two, one held in 
each hand. By a continuous series of circular criss-cross patterns of 
swinging, this vicious blade is difficult to defend against; combined 
with the piidu ' Fig. 31) few venture to cambist against it. The deadly 
aril can be swung over the shoulder (Fig. 52), under the armpit, or 
between the legs to catch a rear-dosing enemy ofT guard- The kitiwang 
is used {Fig. 53), but sparingly so; tactics employ only ore such sword. 
The Maduran g/tUk [fee Fig. 50) poOeutS a -slight difference in design 
from its West Java counterpart. Its reverse cutting edge is convex and 
adds tn its eRectiveness. 

5. JcMrpb Kadjanjt; Amen*, Indonesian mmbativT authority, believes I hat ihis 
weapon orqinal«l j» an agricultural tool in ah** B^juwanji area ol font Java 
(MmtrJrr Bay) and b a innlrrrHl weapum in Madura. 



■■ 1 LtJCa] Vvt'jjjuiu ktwi.i iji Fimm uJiiJ in Mndnra 

51. Tin? Ofit uaest wilh [hr jffjjiiu in P*TTHir fiijit. 


* >'i- Thr iinRl? aril lerhnjqur of Pumur nlat 

Special weapons (Figs. 54, S3) are many in Pantur silaL Notable are 
the ktnli^ wickedly shaped knives which, conjure Lip terrible visions of 
llirir deStricclivcnes-s. TEir Muslim Ijatuk Input (hungry tjaluk) adds slit! 
more terror to the Maduran blade arsenal, as does the ,\rab jambin. 
The pima Mali (see Fig. 30i is usually considered standard weaponry 
for ptntjiik-iiial, Butin Pa tun r style it is a special weapon with a special 
name— loth. The lath Can lake various shapes and sires, but IS used with 
great skill and in the most feared of all Madurese weapons and Can he 
employed with other weapons, such as the his. 

The mystic element in prntjak-iilat is exempli lied in the personage of 
Pamur pandtkai Iiassan. He relates that itjs mostly nondemonstrablc 
and that it can be both positive and negative in form- The mysije power 
of the pandtftar of Pam nr silal can place a "’spell 11 on the enemy, or cause 
him great difficulties in an encounter with a Pamur exponent. Hassan 
himself witnessed (E*>67) the partdekar Dacng Pclaio being wrapped up 
tightly in a roll of rush matting. Five men then repeatedly stabbed their 
blades into the roll. Dacng 1 emerged unharmed! 


53. The u« r>r iht kfifu,nn£ in E'asnur *r ter. 


54. Sptdil weapons uM.-d in Mjtdtinift P*inur trfof. 55, Varioui Marduran AWi in 

Famur mLiS. 


■ Kuotao 

The Chinese wotd kantao is commonly known and understood alii over 
[he length 3rd breadth qf the vast imloneslan Archipelago. li in :l name 
greatly respected by even ihr most sclbrcnErrrd native sneirties, thus 
testifying to the extent of the transplantation of this Chinese combative 
entity in Indonesia, 

Kuntw is I he H ok kirn. word USed [o describe various Chinese lighting 
systems which range over the entire spectrum of hand-to-hand com¬ 
bative measures, that is, systems which embrace both empty-hand 
(Fig, 56; and weapGtied fighting taetid, A great variety of weapons 
is utilized {Fig. 37). 

Octogenarian Djie Stauw Foe of Semaraug in Central Java is a 
master leather, one uf the Last of the old breed. He insists that the pace 
of modern living docs not allow any master teacher (and only master 
teachers should teach) to develop a creditable student. "People are Lazy 
and too preoccupied, with making a living,’ 1 says I>jii’, and therefore he 
flatly refuses m instruct anyone; all are considered by him as "un¬ 
worthy" of his efforts. But there is, in spite of Djie, much ktititao to be 
seert in Indonesia. Kunlati is very secretively praciicrd and is not openly 
displayed in its full technical wholeness. That which is displayed is 
usually not the true form. However, that'which can be viewed by invita¬ 
tion made by a kuntao master is excellent, and java is [tie best place to 
.see it 

To bciler understand kuntae it is well to turn to the translation of the 
Chinese ideograms {there is no standard ideogram for Lite word AnjtJuo) 
that may be assigned to this word. Kan may lie read as '’List' 1 and IM as 
"way. 1 ' The word thus implies the manner of employing the list. 

Fukien (Hokkien), Shantung, Kongfu,® and Kbe (Canton) kuntao 
styles dominate .ill others on Java and Madura 'The brniao of West java 
Centers OIL Djakarta, which has a predominantly Fukien style. Systems 
such as [he run Ktltf, or “straight style,," characterized by its evasive, 
light arid soft actions, changing to hard contact and the throwing of the 
enemy, are seen in abundance here. The throwing techniqiies of thit 
kcn are always made from the rear or side of the victim. The tang 
klok system is similar, but a less upright posture is employed, especially 
in preconlacl sparring. Upon contact, throws arc executed front directly 
in front of or beside the victim. Some tkay loiian tjee, or "hands of 
a big-great man , 11 systems, using short hand actions, crouching stances, 
and finger jabs directed at the weak points uf the victim's anatomy, may 
be witnessed. PA IOTA systems floui-Lsh, and are (unction a! , T 

6. (foi u be confused with the expretuuH kmg-fu (fu*ihe highly rnisunilemood 
H'rm to popular m the West. KiTcr to Alim Fighting Atii by Dorm F. Dra^ftr am! 
RenIwm W, Smith {Tokyo; Kodrnidu, I9W) for a Camel riHinihon 

7. Ail excellent refer cure on the lubjecL it Rtjbon W. Sttuth’i Pa Km Tokyo: Ko- 
tUmhii, Ly6T;i, 


56. Empty^harid innKao technique. 

The kau tsotw (fow run) forms sire identified by tlte oti-tocs postures, 
kicks. delivered by toe pointy jumping Eidc-to-tide maneuvers, crouch¬ 
ing postures, and the grabbing actions directed toward a victim 1 * throat 
and testicles. The hands ate held in close and used in clawing actions 
similar to those made by an enraged monkey, It is from this, latter 
unique characteristic that the systems are sum e-times referred io as 
"monkey" systems. The pp.h ho (pm iiAo),ar stork systems, me big 
dapping acLions of the arms in imitation of the beating wings of that 
bird. All movements arc circular and often made from one-legged 
stances, in a fluttering rhythm, tiiay kek, as it is spoken of in Cantonese, 
better known in the Mandarin dialect as ta'i-thi ck'iian, is also present 
in abundant styles in Djakarta; the shortened or abbreviated forms arc 
the least popular. 




y i 




sum riAO 

57. Standard weaponry nf iira^i (ate alto faring' page). 









•Shanlung Aujy/as styles in Djakarta arc Shaolin derivatives* and also 
extend across Java and Madura. They are easily identified by die forma¬ 
tion of the Fist which invariably positions the thumbs on lop of the 
clenched fingers. Shantung stylists take and main lain as much left 
stance (left foot advanced) as possible precontact f Fig. liB), and it is 
this outsianding charactemtk which marks them apart from the frontal 
and right stances of Fukien (Hokkicn) tighlers {Fig, 59),* Shantung 
actions employ many high-kicking, floor-rolling, and leaping tactics; 
short and long arm actions are aku used. 

khe systems demonstrate their energetic flailing arm movements, high¬ 
speed actions, and subtle movements of hands in open mid scmielencbed 
formations for parrying and blocking, XONGFU style AujilaG uses static 
postures. Rigidity in movement is its theme. Its popularity is diminished 
by the need for complete dedication to its teachings and the relegation 
of all eke to a secondary position. 

Tj.oa Kck Kiong, a master of a great number of Jti mtatf forms, is per- 
haps the most widely experienced expert in Djakarta. As a senior master 
teacher of kuntao, he instructs in various pure styles, with Fukien and 
Shantung types his I brie. Additionally, he has made his own study and 
has developed, with broad-minded vision, a synthesis system which 
borrows from Japanese judo, jBjutsu, karaleS. and aikido. Fusing these 
foreign ideas with Aanffftf tactics^ Tjoa hut produced an interesting 
system which is both highly fund ion n \ and popular in West Java. 

Some notes of interest are explained by Tjoa’s discussion of Fukien 
kmtaa fundamentals. .-Ml Fukien stances were derived by watching the 
behavior of animals fighting and the mannerisms of human beings. Even 
the adoption of motions made by a newborn child have served as the 
basis of stances in feunttm system?, ms have ihr unsteady waverings of an 
intoxicated person. Opposed to the low crouch (depek and itmpok of 
pcnljak-iifat) of some kuntao styles, Fukien forms are confined to normal- 
spaced and natural stances Called ting and pa. Ting is graphically il¬ 
lustrated by the ideogram T and pa by A, Ting is the stance often ex¬ 
plained as the “triangle stance?* (seen commonly in Japanese aikido), 
while pa is the normal let Ann-line stance (the shizmiai and sktffllhontai 
of Kodokan judo). Built within each stance is the instant and automatic 
change from one to the other, 

Tjoa remarked on the expression of kwg-fv, which has been confused 
and erroneously used (by Western advocates of Chinese combative*) as 
the name of a combative system or style of fighting; no trmtua master 
he had ever known was guilty of such a misuse of the word. The word 
must, plain and simple, be Confined to any eflorl df train ing T labor, 
dedication, and persistence that produces a creditable result. The cor¬ 
rect term for such sustained effort in the martial arts is tt'u kmg. 

EL Ihcic stances arc said to have dsvdoprd from ihf custom of&kaFdtung and Fukien 
ppraniTirn, Hi hr Imrn.r hr. i|'■ "■ Lr I ruin a left itllir#, SfH'ar Lit tm ri|f])l suit 1 , 

while the litter pnaiiLonj juii oppoanc to that stance.. 


The history of Aumfdi? development in Indonesia is clouded by many 
factors which make research difficult. The fondness of the Chinese for 
fable and hyperbole may have, according to Tj™, some basis in fact. 
He related the traditional story of how rjtsokkjfc {a West Java pthtjak- 
sitai) was in reality a "monkey 1 " style olTu^fciij. ft was developed,, accord¬ 
ing to tradition, by a woman who, upon being beaten by an angry 
husband, was able to defend herself to (he amazement of her spouse. 
She later told him that she had (earned how to defend herself by watch¬ 
ing the antics of monkey?- From the actions of his wile, the husband was 
able lo develop a “monkey'' style of kuntao. 


Has a piiujak-siiat fighter ever met a Aiiratoa expert, and if so, what was 
the result? Tjoa cautions that such a delicate issue must always be con- 
ditioned by the bias of personal pride and any declared outcome is 
relative to the racial attitude ofhirn who makes the report, He cited the 
traditional story of the alleged development of a ptnijak-HSai style called 
nwiTANG (see p. 4fl). The rwiTANO style is claimed by some Muslims 
to have been the result of the efforts of a Muslim priest named Kjai, In 
his victory over a Chinese drug peddler named Kwee Tang Kiam, he 
posited a name lor his -style using his defeated opponent's name. The 
Chinese take the opposite stand. How else can the obviously Chinese 
name of the system be logically espial red than by seeing Kwee, who 
was also a Jfc utita& roaster, defeat priest Kjai? The Muslim version has 
Kwee converting to the Muslim faith to follow his new m aster r The 
Chinese further insist that the appearance of kwitang silal in the Scnen 
area was due to Kwee marrying an Indonesian woman and settling 
there, He taught a great many native non-Chinese his art. The only 
tiling certain about either story is that at one time a person named 
Kw« was involved in this sitat form; this ts borne out because neither 
the Muslim nor Chinese debate it. 

■ Other Weapons and Systems 

In Indonesia^ by reputation, there is no more sanguinary a bladed 
weapon than the km* that strangely shaped, double-edged dagger de¬ 
signed primarily for thrusting. The £nj is at once a weapon, an orna¬ 
ment, and an object of cult. The tiumtrwqf, or "mystic lore,” and talLa- 
manic values assigned to this instrument of death are ail abundantly 

All km have Am to, or “spirit,” and many arc capable of fujii, or 
“sorcery by pointing.” Such qualities are implanted by the secret and 
mystic forging process in the hands of the pande, or “expert,” as the 
smith is called, but may only be brought into function by the owner. A 
kns might kill a victim by simply being pointed at him; by invoking 
sympathetic magic it might also kill by bring stabbed into the victim’s 
shadow or his footprints. Legends tell of the kris raiding in the owner’s 
sheath to warn him of approaching danger. Still other stories relate how 
an owner’s kris lept from its sheath to fight for the owner- By other 
supernatural powers a kris may draw fire, that is, bring a fire from its 
source of burning to another disconnected area. There are those natives 
who insist that the Jtrir can turn wild animals in their tracks. 

In spite of these and still other legends about the kris which the 
Westerner may dismiss as farfetched stories without basis in fact, the kris 
is a very real weapon. It can be said to be the national weapon of Java. 
W. H, Rassert explains that: 

0 , Abo ipeLLed tfrii. ifiss, <r«r», twis, m-fr, tfurrix, triii, And iris. 


► ■ - tile kru is an organic part oflndonesdan culture, and, as far <is 
we can tell from cmr knowledge of facts, of this culture alone. . . . 
No one has ever succeeded, notwithstanding all the (rouble that 
has been taken, io locating as indigenous properly anywhere out¬ 
side of the Archipelago a weapon that could be given the name 
of'W in the Archipelago on (he other hand and especially 
in Java, it is one of the most characteristic elements of culture. 
Java without the fcri,r would be Java no longer.™ 

The Javanese identifies a wide variety of different kinds of kru, taking 
into account details of size, shape,, and workmanship of the weapon. 
To the uninitiated such distinguishing differences arc imperceptible nr 
at belt, obscure in meaning. Sir Stamford Raffles has catalogued some 
forty types of JavaEirse km on one hundred varieties. 11 

The km is pre'Ctnincntly male. 1 * Tradition has it that every male 
Javanese should possess a kru , . . and on certain occasions, be seen with 
It. For the Javanese, the iris represents his tutelary spirit, his connection 
with his divine ancestry', Symbolically it implies (he mark of a tribal 
hero-warrior. The knur is a mark of distinction without which no Java¬ 
nese feels a complete personality. It is a part of his daily dress, and in its 
absence tlir Javanese is without ■jclf-coitfidence, The old adal (law) 
required (hat every father furnish his son with a Jtrij when the latter 
reached the age of manhood: it was only by ihis act that the soil became 
a man. 

But not every frir suite every Javanese. In the selection process, the 
power of the km is extremely important to the prospective owner; 
inheriting the km is preferable id buying one. The power of the kru is 
nut a fixed quality peculiar to (he kris itself but rather of a jfMTciliC 
nature only in accord with the personal characteristics of the owner. 
Then too, certain ty pes of blades and grips can only be chosen by certain 
classifications of man; all choices arc bridled; with criteria established by 
society. J. E. Jasper and Mas Pirngadie (L93D) write : 

It is easy to understand that where not only the weapon but the 
whole work of the smith as well is wrapped in such mystery, the 
shape and the moths used for the damascening of the weapon 
have also acquired special significance and so every' wearer of a 
kris has chosen for his weapon a shape and a pamor motive 

10. ■‘On she Javanese Krt»" (IJndatrd inostngraph *. 

11. The Hiitcfy of jfflM (Oxford in Asia. 2 vofj., London, 1810), 

12. One legend informs, slut ilsr origin of ihit jr-m lir* in lhe pballui of a. (Udite in, 
rencr' ^unan Benang, an rcaLtji ,-tali. would not Lt^ui t hildr«-n and refrained from. 
sf.iLtal inirrctmiH. He removed his sexual organ and made ii imo the ius Kyai Kal* 

Monjt’llK which wu thr.Qrrfnrlh a family hrirhxwn I^ir iru/a wtre die TfSinsmu 

ascotica of ancient limes. 


which, in connection with different circumstances, have been 
selected by him as the most suitable, the moat auspicious. 1 ' 

The shape and siac of the Jlrb vary within a very wide latitude, de- 
pending upon the geographical area and the mission for which the blade 
was designed. The Javanese fcnfe is the most typical. It is usually from 
twelve to twenty inches in. overall length. Two unique features make 
the krii totally different from all other weapons" the sudden widening of 
the blade just below the base, which is set at not quite right angles to it; 
the fact l hat in all but the earliest one-piece |'bl ad e-hand fe) models, the 
blade is not set firmly to the handle. 

The most valuable part of the tn'j is the blade (mala iris). For scholars 
such as G. C. Grifftth-Williarns, the sivje and shape of thr blade are the 
only basic quality. 5 * Blades may br straight [dapur bmtr) or undulate 
(dapur Iim] Or dapur parting) (Fig, W). The former design characteristic 
represents a stale of static rest, the latter, action personified; both 
blade forms are representative of the serpent, a cannibalistic deity. All 
old-model original Arur were forged with straight-line blades. The wavy 
design, according to G. B, Gardner, is a design feature adopted from 
Indian weapons. 1 * Gardner has suggested that a primitive Indian wea¬ 
pon made from, an ibex horn, and later, steel daggers utilizing this 
wavy-shape characteristic, gave the Indonesians the idea for a wavy 
blade. A. II. Hill questions this generalization cm the basis that the 
ibex horn shows a spiral while the krii waves are flat planed. 1 * 

Tike deadlines* of a trir in combat increases with the number of waves 
it possesses. A wavy blade makes a larger wound, and can penetrate 
more readily between bones. The number nf waves [(uq) in the blade is 
calculated by counting the number of times the blade turns inward to¬ 
ward the longitudinal axis from the base of the blade to its lip, The 
number is always odd. A. M. K. de Does limits the undulations from 
three to thirteen, 17 but some km exist that exhibit as many as iwenty- 
nine. The cross section of (he blade may be elliptical, diamond shaped, 
almost flat, or a series of shallow-stepped graduation* in relief pat¬ 
terns. Sometimes a narrow channel runs the length of the blade on both 
sides. Or there may simply Ihe a one-sided tWG-parallcl-channelsdesign 
separated by a raised rib. The blade of the krfy is most often possessed 
with cracks, said to have mystic qualities, but more likely an explana¬ 
tion to downplay the lack of the smith's skill. 

The raised collar guard (^an/is) usually forms the base of the blade 
{Fig. 61). In the earliest models, i\i*r ganja was fashioned a* one piece 

13. i)t Mamtufhr Xmitnijwrtirid in AW/rfeiUlffit ftufii , Vol. V >\ 1934), 
t4. Suggtsltii Origin aflht Malay Kzrii (Singapoa-t, 1937). 

15. A'f?U wd Olflrr AIiikjv [t VjjIHt;- L 936) , 

16. Tht Malay Kens and Oifur H Vflftr.-n.- (Sicijapnie, , 

] 7, rwt.'iin,# drr Nijlxthnd jn Bartdiamegara, in Tifdahr. KjI Cell. XXXVI, 11533. 


fid. I'wo Javanese *rii faUdtsr the dcpur tanur tyfmf li/rj, and 
the ifti^Kr luq i ype (rtjfiJ ). 






61 .JjiiVAl lOv-' A nr Jirid ili^alh jTitU. 


with the blade [ga*\j& maamtyang); in later models the gsjija is a separate 
piece, The shank (paksi) is a pin projecting thruugh the gexjt i in line 
wilt the axis of the blade on which to fit the handle [ulu) r The orna- 
mental ferrule ls called the penangkoh and slips over the paksi to fit loosely 
over the base of the handle. 

The slant of the gttnja in relation to (he blade is deli Iterate and makes 
one end of il sharp-pointed jan'ng), with the other end relatively blunt 
(ifa^a). Just below ihe.d-m.g will be Found multiple serrations {jaaggut} y 
while below thritjv is the interesting and mystic feature of the upward 
and inward curved spike f bct&Iaigaja, or "'elephant's trunk' 1 ], and the 
shorter spike above it, called iaminttgaja, or "elephant's tusk, 11 Between 
these spikes may bn a few tootblike projections corresponding to the 
janggut on the opposite edge. In many models, however, these spikes are 
reduced to symbolic protuberances; they may even be entirely absent. 

The handle {grip or hilt} offers a method of differentiation of the Am. 
Tills important pari of the weapon is called the utu. Historically its 
dr sign features go back to two main Jbrms, the hnggaq limi, or "budding 
tree trunk," and the parisiran t or “littoral," 14 A third type, kagoq, 
or "intermediary form*" has also been suggested by some scholars, such 
as Jasper and Mas Firngadic. Il is clear that different handles were 
prescribed, fur different classes of people and there may have even been 
some connection between handle design and geographical area. The 
importance of the kris handle is reflected even today where it is best 
known as a status symbol, As the social status of a Javanese alters, so 
docs his dznj-liandie design. 

The handle is usually made from some ornamental wood, is always 
hand-ear\-ed, and is about four to five Inches in length- fhe handle is 
bent near its midpoint to give a pistol-grip effect. It appears to be 
undersized for all but the tiniest of hands. The most common Javanese 
type is thejauu (imam, or "fever-stricken mar,” design; jt resembles a 
man hugging himself as if in the grip of fever chills. The older his 
handles were recognizable as human figures and animats, but later were 
reduced to geometrical shapes. For example, the clearly recognizable 
Gamda degenerated into grotesque caricature. Events in history 
caused the modifications. After the Hindu culture fell under the on¬ 
slaught of the Muslims, the Javanese feared reprisals if they dung openly 
to their Hindu culture. They thus compromised with Allah by defacing 
the original Ara-haitdle images, but retained their vague lorm so that 
they could prrpctujie the superstitions and religious biases that gave 
potency and efficiency to their kris, Hindu demigods were kept as models 
for Arts handles* but unrecognizably made in the face of Muslim influ¬ 
ence. No Arts is to be found with Giva on the handle in any form 

10. The divutaft at Maiaram into two rival principalities, Sunkarii {Stiln} and 
Jogjakarta, led Sunan f s afcu (hiWAft* 13 E to favor the ^rwiij'rasn typHi for Solo, and 
Sultan Amengku Buwann I ihe timggnq ifm for Jogjakarta. Since tin- latter type >* 
ccukHdcrcrl swipcrkir, bulk areas claim original owni-rship of (hat type. 


62. Jtvpusr carvi^i wooden tnj hindln, 

directly related to this god. But perhaps the divert* nines and farms of 
Civa have been appealed to in some now unidentifiable manner 
(Frg. 62}. 

The sheath or scabbard LS-aron^} is made from ornamental ww/ds. The 
idm/hr, the crosspiece at the top of the sheath,, identifies the Javanese 
model. It is always pronouncedly boat shaped. It follows the slant of the 
ganja, curving abruptly toward the end. The body tapers gently 
toward its butt end and may be enclosed ill metal„ over its entire surface, 
or just at its lower end. The mouth of the sheath is called the ^houst 1 * ol 


the Jfcrij. Two types are dominant the tmmggah and the gojaman ; * third 
type can sometimes also be identified. It is known as the tunggal, an 
intermediary opening. None of them admit the gmja (Fig. 63).** 

Little is accurately known of (he origin of the kris. Its historic begin¬ 
ning is speculative. Ah that can be historically proven is that the km 
existed in the middle Javanese period and that its importance at that 
time was entirely restricted to the noble class. As the cultural center of 
Java moved eastward ^following the downfall of the Srivijaya Empire 
(seventh to fourteenth centuries) in Sumatra, the km took on increas¬ 
ingly more important roles. A, H. Hi LI {\inbty Keris) lias shown by 
examination of old k ru that evolved typo have hardly changed i n the 
past three centuries and that the Aris is "characteristically an Indonesian 
weapon, lt C. Forbes reports the: kris in Java as a post-Hindu develop- 
men!,®* G. C- Griffith-Williams {Suggested Origin) sees the kris as a 
distinct weapon in thr fourteenth to fifteenth cenInric?*, while Sir 
Richard W r instedt and I, H. ft. Lvans both agree that the Majapahit 
(thirteenth to sixteenth centuries) made the inr popular.* 1 
A pre-Majapahit existence for the has been suggested by the so- 
called Panji Legends, 1 * which are concerned with the development of 
Indonesian culture up to the founding of the fourteenth-century' king¬ 
dom of Pajajaran. The kris t in these legends, is an important instrument 
and is first manufactured by Hindu King Sakutram, who is said to have 
been born with the ftris pwopnii** at his side; King Radio Inu Karla pari 
ofjanggala (fourteenth century) is also given credit for the first, im. 

One of the earliest possible prototypes of the frn> may be the so-called 
Jtrif majapahit (Fig, 64), It has been described best by Abu Dakar as 
being an unusual onc-piecc blade, measuring 22.4 cm. in length (17.2 
for the blade; 5-2 for the handle) and 0.35 cm. thickness on the blade. 
The relative handle- blade positions differ from that of the ordinary kris 
in that the handle of the Jtrir majupahit faces the blade edge on the side of 
the deign, It is forged from meteoric iron, has uncontrolled pamvr and 
curves at its distal end toward the dagu. It has no separate ganja. The 
handle (iilu) when viewed from its interior aspect is cobra shaped. 
Still another possible prototype is seen in the kris pichit (Fig. 65), which 

IS. Thi, U not absolute, There IE A tendency in mntlrrn. modeli fur llu; tfanja to lie 
(lush with the upper mrfaee of the latapir, blade fully inserted, in Javanese models, 

20, t-V.ia.ii -r irT 1 iji uf c Ivalutiiiiii [London, I8&5), 

2 I. See Wmslodfs M A History of Malays," Journal tf tAr Malqtim Stanch of ffu Royal 
13 {March Lg3S"J ;i and Evans' Among Frimitk* I’tapU-j in Somto . , . 
(London: S&eiey, Service and Co,* Ltd., 1922).; Pajtwrr or j At Ethnology and Archaeology 
oflhi Malay Pcniiuula (Cambridge : University Pi™, 1927), and “Note* on the Bajaus 
and other ccwiaJai tribw of North Borneo,” Journal e>f iht Malayan Branch of the Royal 

22. Reported to be of a.O. 92 vintage aurl concerning the eijjlujis of the warrior-god 

23. One of the many names of Civ», 


63. Javanese kris iheaih pes. 

64. The km w j i ^ atoj a pcuLtiLe 
eariy prototype ad' the iru. 

H5. lilt krii fm/iil, iiiirlhrr psnwtbl** patDiype if the kru, 


is perhaps os old us die km majafiahil. Ilia by tradition said, to have been 
made by a king of the Majapahit Or |>erhaps by the Drang wati t or ''her¬ 
mit-saints,” Gardner has opined that ihr foil majapakit evolved from llic 
form of daggers made from the caudal spine of die ikanpari 'iDusyatidac* 
and MyJiobatidae;, the stingrays which abound in Indonesian waters, 

Still another theory about pre-tru prototypes has been advanced 
This is the idea that the Ant was an adapted weapon. In ancient times 
iron was scarce in Indonesia,* 4 and a warrior perhaps carried a spear 
with a detachable head that served as a dagger. On missions requiring 
stealth the shaft could be dispensed with and the dagger hidden in the 
folds of the warrior's Hill objects to this theory on the grounds 

that the wide shoulders of the ganja and weakness of ihrpflAfJ limit the 
use of the blade as a true spear. Further,, some prototypes could not be 
secured to & shaft except by means of unsteady lashing. Then too, a 
spearhead must penetrate the victim cleanly and Ew instantly retract¬ 
able, The ganja of the £rir would hinder a speedy entry, and also the 
withdrawal. Hill also points out that no type of spear with this conver¬ 
sion ability has ever been found. 

Dr. Sucks monti refers to the lack of evidence of the km on art reliefs 
in Java, which must be taken as the fact that it had not yet been invented 
[or had not: yet gained popularity).. Whereas the sword and spear arc 
abundantly depicted on ancient reliefs, the km is first seen on a mid- 
fourteenth -century panel at a temple at Suku which shows Buna, 3 
Javanese warrior-god* forging a km with his bare hands while using his 
knee as an anvil, M Alsu, at Melang, a stone-monument relief shows 
fifteenth-cemury evidence of (.he Arti in the Blitar region, TEiese are the 
first art forms known to show the trif.** 

If the km really did come to Indonesia in the fourteenth to fifteenth 
centuries, the time was ripe for the growth of supernatural superstitions 
!o dominate its rationale. That era was not veiled in peace and the 
kris may well have figured importantly in the struggles of the Hindu 
Majapahit against the Muslim expansion- On the arrival of Islam the 
Hindu warlords and their pamif scattered, but their old faith iti Vishnu 
and Civa did not die. The powers of these two important Hindu gods 
came to be passed into the Aria, and |he wearing of the km now shifted 
from the exclusive right of the noble class to a universal practice where¬ 
by every commoner carried one. The kris took on new significance and 
its reputation grew as the power of Civa was invoked for anti-Muslim 
endeavors. By ihr. commoner wearing the bis, design features were 

24, Hr van StrijI-C-n-llcnfcb puls ihe iron age in Java it the fourth eetiiury a.d.; 
Gvdn±r teii ii .li approximately a.d. GOO. 

'•'5. Alt Majapahit jPirn -Sr an! 1 reported as able to w-i.rk ml-hot iron with their bare 

26. Th.ii may limply mean that prior m thi» Urn« the 4rir whs of such little impnrUmer 
that it did not mem commemoration on iriwurlx of the lime*. Perha]K. aUq, there 
are vei arLwnrloi (p be discovered which will predate (June now known, 


affected; it was made to l*r worn comfortably and hidden easily in the 
jsfjmjj, ready lor instant use, On tile Jail of the Majapahit* the pande 
were driven into hast Java, Bali, Mad Lira h and tlw Celebes, there to 
fashion kris with still further modifications according to tin- needs of each 
geographical urea. The original kris forms, said by Ngabchi Karjadi- 
kramH to he only lour i Brodjnl, TiUmputih, Sangkelal, and Panimbal 
from which all others derive, were greatly diversified. Hill Malay Ketis) 
lists the following distinct types: Javanese; Bali-Lombok-Madura; 
Sumatran; Bug is; Pant aid, and Surd ring or Sulok (Sulitk). 

1 hr pandr., nr smith, who forges the Art's is a special person. Though 
usually poor and humble, he is treated as an honored person because he 
lias access to the supernatural. He is addressed as fmpu or Ajxh (lord or 
mastcrl, His trade is regarded not as something ordinary but as a sacred 
art veiled in mystery, TEic pandt ol uld enjoyed a higher social position 
than those of today, but all pandr arr respected, When at work he could 
use- bin imagination for design efforts within only very narrow limits. 
His earliest blades wrre functional and not decorative, but today*; Arrr 
arc highly ornate instruments. 

One of the distinguishing features of the kris which is imparted by thr 
pande is (hat rough, lacking-finish quality of the blade. It has often been 
mistakenly called damascening, ljut in reality it is puma* . pamoT',. « It is 
a special design feature obtained by welding metals of different composi¬ 
tions in an ingenious manner to the core of the blade. Not all kris arc 
given litis treatment, but those without it are not considered complete. 
The designs otpamur are, to Javanese, living beings, with both bad and 
good eharacleristics. 

Pamur may first have been made by accident, Early forging came 
when knowledge of iron and metallurgy was limited, Meteors, contain¬ 
ing nickel and other impurities, furnished the pandt's principal source 
of iron for blades. Crude forging methods developed characteristic vein- 
iitg patterns. These came to be given talismanic values and in time were 
improved oti in processes devised by each pandt. fh< pande workrd in 
and enrcjniraged complete mysticism 10 keep others from learning his 

Some twenty layers of metal are hammered into each aide of the 
blade core, The smith controls the order and layering design, A single 
forging of the mrtal-s and with effect is sufficient to bring them together, 
Later, smaller sections or the blade, starting at the base at the handle 
end, are heated and hammered separately; holes and channels may be 
cut to expose veins, borne hand polishing is used to smooth down the 
roughest edges, but the blade is never highly polished It may be pickled 
in acid, usually acetic or citric compounds, and may be still Limber 
etched by arsenic, The blade is finally washed and oiled, ready for 
fitting to its carefully nude and chosen handle. 

27. tfciJnisiiciie wuifc Laikv i, Lipf sur&M'<‘sL pamur is aJl riihrL 



3 □ [=! □ □ 


DU AN 5A-Pi.runtJK 

bu. Teu I'.HLerfu for Any blades. 

There arc jive principal pamur designs; a.4?j ttufah (disseminated grains 
of rice), sikar pula (nutmeg flowers), .Hftsr ngndig (flowm in erect posi¬ 
tion),, blaraq ngirid (coconut leaves strung), and sfkar tfmu (curcuma 
flowers). These patterns represent the five Pandawas of the Hindu- 
Javanese epic. All other designs of kru arc but variations of these ftve. 

It is perhaps because of the use of arsenic on. the blade that the bit is 
referred to as a poisoned blade. But more often than not no poison is 
used on this already lethal and bloodthirsty weapon, If it should be 
applied, it perhaps would be a product of the Antians toxitaria used on 
blowpipe missiles and arrows of inland natives. A nick by a £n.r so 
prepared would be fatal. 

Certain features of the km indicate whether it wilt be good or bad 
luck for the potential owner. Principally the number of times it has 
shed blood is important. The reputation of its pandt, the pamur pattern, 
and special features are also taken into consideration. To discover its 
potential (here arc various tests; a strip of pclnddtt leaf, the exact length 
of the blade,, is folded in half and cut into rectangular pieces,, each equal 
to the midpoint width of the blade. These pieces are then laid,, in a 
particular order and pattern, along the blade. The cud pieces deter¬ 
mine whether the Art'r is lucky or unlucky for the owner-to-be. An odd 
number of strips is better than an even number. The gagei lapai t or 
"beak open," pattern (Fig, 66a) and the dmn W'pwJiok pattern (h) are 
indicative of a lucky kris for a warrior. The ptnehebak, or ,L long shovel/' 
paitem (e) is a term of contempt for an unlucky bis* The measurer may 
also utter a recurring sequence of words when cutting or laying the 


67. Two views of gf tppi ng ihe Am-. 

patterns. Certain words ire luckier than others. Still another method 
is to hold the his with its handle toward the measurer. The right thumb 
is placed across the blade so that the thumbnail just covers the top edge 
of the ganja along the axis of the blade. Thru the left thumb is in posi¬ 
tion to just touch die right one and, in alternate fashion, the thumbs 
are worked down the blade toward its point. The his is known to be 
lucky if the last thumb-width stays just within the length of the blade 

J. Crawfurd has labeled the fcrr'j a c< . .. trifling, ineffectual dagger.” 1 * 
Admittedly, a lopsided-appearing instrument some what blunt at its 
pointed end, the Jtrij gives every appearance of being a weapon that lias 
just been thrown logethcr without any special care given its design. 
With the base of its handle at almost right angles to the flat side of the 
blade, the ktis must require special handling to be effectual in combative 

It is held in the right hand, lingers gripping the handle, which paints 
downward (at right angles to the plane of the blade which is vertically 
positioned). The unng gives protection to the knuckles and base joints of 
the fingers; the dagu serves to protect the fure-end joints. The forefinger 
is placed to lie along the ganja (Fig, 67).The Arris is used in thrusting 

2B. Hiilttij of She Indian Archrfriagtt (EdtAburgll, 1620), 

?9. Wuh ihe thumb pressing [he dagu portion uf die blade, Lite K 1 ip r^tmbjta that 
wliirh wchjIcE be used ti> bokl a spear shaft, thn fact ■alt-cn ia used to reinforce the 
theory that the- Aro stemmed. from the «p«r rather ihan from the dagger. 


60 . Weiring ihr km. 

fashion, straight-line jalx from close to the body with the elbow kept 
bent; if the arm is fully extruded on thr thrust, ihe km cannot be de¬ 
livered with its best efficiency. It is thus a highly suitable weapon far 
quick sEab-and-thrust actions in close combat in confined spaces. The 
enemy’s thrusts can be deflected by judicious use of the snnf, On the 
jungle I rails, fok pitted against iris, it is an admirable weapon, but if 
contested against longer and more powerful weapons, such as swards 
and sticks or staffs, its efficiency is in great question. It certainly is a 
weapon which depends on stealth and surprise rather than premeditated 
squaring off and fencing tactics. The victim’s midsection or kidney arras 
arc the most-favored targets for stabbing, The Aru’s stabbing action may 
he made with the blade held either tfrrag Upward or to the right, and in 
either an upward or downward direction. 

Though the Javanese doubtless regard the krk as a strong lighting 
weapon, they surround it with stringent ethic and never perceptibly 
prefer to carry it as such, 

The krk is most usually worn in such a manner as not iy he instantly 
at hand, It is proper to wear it thrust through the sash m an oblique 
way, lower end of the sheath on the left side, gTip on the right side. If 
carried atrog downward the intention is peaceful, Reversing the amj 
so that it points upward requires the normal sheath to he worn frontal 
side against the back; this is not usual, but such a wearing permits ati 
instant draw and last use of the blade (Fig. Gfi). 

The Aru has also served as a tool of execution for criminals. The con¬ 
demned man was made to kneel, His executioner stood behind him 
holding the kris above the condemned's left shoulder. At a given signal 
the executioner plunged the blade in an oblique path, downward 
through the shoulder flesh near the collarbone and into the victim's 


heart. The Sullan's quadrangle in Jogjakarta was the scene of many 
such acts by which criminals wen: "rrirffJJ* 

Javanese blade- types do not atop with the kri$ r An almost uncountable 
variety of blade designs can be found on this island. Some generaliza¬ 
tions arc possible and may somrfimes be extended to the weapons of 
other areas uf Indonesia. 

The terms fedang, kiUwaH^ parang, pis an. gpfah, and arit all identify 
bladed weapons commonly seen on Java. They have been described 
earlier in Chapter One, in connection with weaponry attached to 
ptnijak-iilal' Still other knife-blade patterns exist (Fig. 69), 

Javanese spears are famous; mystic shapes and infinite designs char¬ 
acterize ilir-M- weapons (Figs. 70, 71;. Gilded spears Imm Simdii, arc used 
in the performance of the uric htlang (spear-catching) dances scon at festi¬ 
vals. Their history goes back into the dim past and reminds of the com¬ 
bative strength of this primitive weapon, A wayang kutit {shadow play) 
tells of a warrior-god of the kingdom of Mcitdaug, Ka null an, who pointed 
his spear at the ground, from which emerged a huge snake the size of a 
tall free with breath poisonous and strong Like smoke from a volcano. 

Fondness for the blade, however, has not permitted the Javanese to 
overlook other lighting Forms. C, Forbes has reported ( Wandtrings) that 
in the remote village of Tjibco the antisocial Ba.ti.ui live on carrion- 
Forbidden by their religious beliefs to let the blood of animals, they 
"kill by a stroke of hand," letting the animal die of the blow. They pos¬ 
sess an effective use of the hands by which they deliver the killing blows, 
and slaughter even water buffalo in tins fashion. The relation of their 
skills to organized pentjak-silat forms is unknown. 3 " 

The Maduiri area in East-Central Java, specifically the Ponomgo 
area, has developed a combative system called TjAWStic. A secret whip- 
fighting technique, tjambuk is little practiced in the open today and is 
must difficult to locate- bm may be glimpsed during special festivals in 
which the Kong is danced; this folkdancc depicts a battle Ik tween two 
neighboring tribes,* 1 The weapon, the chtmeti (Fig. 72), may be of 
buffalo leather; sometimes human hair is substituted, or a metal chain 
h used. The handle of the whip may be of hard feather or leather 
wrapped around a hardwood handle. Overall lengths of the whip vary 
from three to five feet. 

30. Yam- Manwld, j Badui now residing in Djakarta, in ass interview at the Indo¬ 
nesian NaiionaL Muirum in Djakarta (1967), explained chat Battue culture wishes 
nn liaison with modern civilLud wtiei). IdEi-rm^-ai jorn by ofticiab about weapons and 
system* were unproductive. 

31 The Reog danerta are met: uf r-xirantvd:nnri-ly iLroriK neck muscle, produced by 
many hours of dancing white wearing huge and heavy decorative headpiece*, Wit¬ 
nessed LapsiL^s uf necks found even the srnallest iu he iiboiu seventeen inches, with 
some (icHdiitg niueieecL; since the natives are of relative-]y small stature and slight 
of build, this dcvckipiiwMji Is eknipiional. Such men are regarded ju "unchokabla 1 " 
in l orri Lkj l. 


k£lEWAN5 fi-A&AlJj eODIK 

[.ARB! DO 

6y, ft.L^ic typ4«rjavu«u knift' and iword hiaeln, 








[j ATJISi; 


70. ISlIml lypia «f jjviiritu - i-ptar heads and aha Its. 


71. MuccffiiiifW! jivmw iprjiheadi t)n di-splay an liar MwrmFn 
Sfbaien, Jogjakarta. 


length. The system lathy is largely ceremonial seen only on festival 
dayi, especially during the southeastern mnnsoun season, a. time of 
intense heat and draught when it ts believed that the whip action wi!E 
produce the needed rain. 

The object of the above whip-lighting styles is to make [he enemy 
submit, Target areas for both tjambuk mid uduhg (ttban) center atmui 
the fate, nspecialEy tlie eyes . 12 Scars on the arms of elders attest to their 

32 , The prectw relationships with t-'lrifT* whlpTi^hiing styles arc us yet nol fully 
inv«tiga.ttd, but the s*mi Urines art iml» striking co be act idem?*!. 


training of old. Their arms, now a mass of scar tissue, Inave an extreme]y 
high threshold of pain. Normal whip-fighting action against their arms 
is perhaps nut felt as pain. They are able to receive a full whiplash on 
tiieir arms without any ill effects. 

The skills of the tjambuk and uduno whip-fighters are reportedly 
fantastic- They arc said to hr able tts snap off shin buttons, Such skills, 
while possible, are nevertheless not demonstrated, 

In the Djemlrer area is found a strange style of chnruli art. The natives 
thrrr use a leather whip skillfully enough to crack tiles and soft rocks. 
It is chimed that they delight in practicing snapping out dry grass fires, 
to improve their technique, 

GulaT, an Indonesian wrestling form, is not commonly popular 
among the Javanese. It exists mainly as a sport today, tuned for inter" 
national and Olympic competition; its origins however arc combative. 
It is a strange synthesis made possible by the impetus of the Japanese 
occupation during World War 11 and contacts with other foreign areas. 
It combines Iranian frec-style wrestling tactics, Korean cittum i and 
Japanese sumo. Contestants grapple like ntmS-krri (Japanese wrestlers) 
and are required to throw and hold the opponent to gain victory. They 
are clad in the tjawa! [similar to the Japanese mmd wwwashi). banjano 
is a Bandung-arca (West Java} style of OLLAT, 

Java boasts various modern synthesis systems based on an amalgama¬ 
tion ofliia/acj pfntjBk’rilat, JapatieseJiS/iiiraj judo, kawtt-do, and trikiffQ- Jn 
the Djakarta area, Robert Chung and Effendi are two such originators 
and teachers of their own systems. At Bandung will be found Battling" 
Ong, a Chinese cxprofessional wrestler who has concocted his own self- 
defense system. 

In tlu; cast, in Surabaja, then: is also a very interesting and effective 
synthesis system. Known as pobhikaWa, nr l'crkurnpulan Glah Raga 
Be lad in Ithik&Wa, the system was founded by an Indonesian-Japanese, 
Ishikawa. Training in this system is thorough and practical. The student 
learns to fall from difficult positions and a range of heights and relies 
on uplift force originating from both feet contacting the ground to 
protect his spinal column from injury. When sufficiently skilled the 
student can take a Pal fall and spring to his feet to continue the fight. 
The system deals with empty-hand and weapons attacks and defenses 
(Figs. 74- k 75). Weapons most employed include the staff, the stick, 
the sw'ord, and the knife. The techniques of the pqrbikawa system 
reflect their composite ancestry in kuntev, ftmtjafc-iiizt, as well as their 
Japanese aspects in jujutnt. Two leading teachers are (he Lwin Tan 
brothers,, who assist master teacher Ishikawa, 

Madura Island is the home of a tilde-known form of grappling com¬ 
bative, Called OKGi., the form is endemic only to Madura, Much of 
Oitr>L training today is confined to the lower class belthak [pedkab 
driven), but occasionally it may be seen among older students who 
practice it as a sport. No special costume need be worn ; the idea stems 


74, Porbitaw* iyjtem empty-hand action. 


77, Tlie omtp-ttttnkT racist in Okol grappling. 

78. Two nagca of the uot-na^ lactic in OlcoJ fjtapk- 


from its combative origins in which iSir garments used in daily dress are 
adequate. An ouol bout is begun by the two combatants graspim; each 
other in a symmetrical four-handed locked-up stance resembling the 
Japanese stimvyQtM-p,timi. The two then endeavor io force each other off 
balance by quick, clever movements and leverage (Fig. 76). Throwing 
the opponent to the ground is the accepted manner of effecting a vic¬ 
tory. Tactics include judo-like actions, such as vioUMtoshi (Fig. 77 and 
sfai^ndge (Fig. 78). No grappling on the ground is permitted iti the 
spent form, but if the- si tun lion is combative, then SUirrtplng nr kicking, 
or even striking the downed combatant, is the way to victory. The up. 
right combatant may also finish offliis adversary on the ground by use 
of :.i knife thrust inlu a vital area. 

On Sapndi Island nearby Madura’s eastern coast are (bund excellent 
spear il'jm&tik) and staff (toya) fighting techniques. The natives there 
specialize in these two weapons and apply similar tactics to both. 



and the RIOUW 

Nor shall my sword 
sUtp in my hand. 


fl Background 

William Marjitirn, writing in [hr cightccnlh century, spoke of Sumatra 
as being r , of nil aeccssiblr places of the world, that which was the 
least known/’ 3 Combatively speaking this is still true in the twentieth 
century. Insufficient interest in investigating the wealth of combative 
lore existing an this island, one of the largest in the world, is evident. 

Sumatra lies in a general northwest and southeast direction, bisected 
obliquely by the equator, its northern tip pushes into the Bay of Bengal, 
its southwest, mast exposed m the great Indian Ocean; southward it is 
Separated by the Straits of Sunda from Java and on the east hy the 
fringes of the Eastern and China seas from Borneo, while on the north¬ 
east by the Straits of Malacca, from ihe Malay Peninsula. 

Little is know i] of the early history of Sumatra. Even the origin of the 
island's cam manly accepted name, Sumatra, cannot he positively iden- 
lihed, 1 It is generally accepted by scholars that this huge island was 
once, in the prehistoric past, united with ihe Asian continent. Curiously, 
too, it has been proven that migrations took place from Sumatra to the 
Malay Peninsula by a process of gradual displacement and for a variety 

h Wrtory ftj Swmvtra - Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University EV™ 13rd fcd.J, 3 C J(&6':. 

£. Many primitive inlubtiatus of Sumatra in this Hay have no special word ur namr 
fnr thrjr land I he brller-informed cal] it rndaluN, PuJo Per^ha, or MritcliQ. Ancient 
Arabian records refer lo it ai Al-ftami or LamctU Lhe Chinese knew ji variously at 
J J| >lh E'a-ii, Pa-ri, Ur Bari;; u>rrii'1 1 mt* Kanr|*-J| nr Kando-ri. Francois Valerttijn LLtfit 
the narne AnHatua. Persian records mention Shamairah; Malayan documents speak 
of SamanEara. From (hew latter names can be seen a strong resemblance to (he 
Sanskrit language {jtfi, irfjjplyirtjj "gpswH" and matra, "measure" or aarnariLara implying 
"boundary," "intermediate," cw yet "that which lies between 1 *) The Htndug appear 
to have rtanmt il Sumatra. 


of expansionistic reasons, (he reverse, a north-to-south displacement, 
no t being the case, 

Sumatra perhaps was tinItnoWtl to the am.lent fJrerk and Kfiirun 
geographers; their Taprobanc may thus be only Ceylon* though from 
the Middle Ages onward that name was applied to Sumatra. That the 
ancient Chinese knew of Sumatra is established by examination of their 
old records. However, for a long time they recorded two separate loca¬ 
tions. on the island as different countries, The History of the Liang Dynasty 
(502-556), Book 54, gives some valuable information on the ncciignition 
of Sumatra. The records reveal the kingdom of Fodi, situated southeast 
of Canton on an island in the sea. The king i( . . . carries a sword inlaid 
with gold and sits on a golden throne , . . Ins carriage is drawn by an 
elephant." Upon questioning the natives, the Chinese learned that they 
did not know about their anceslra! origins, but only that their king was 
named Kaudinya and that a wife of S’uddhodana was a woman from 
their country.* The existence of Poll is also supported by (he records of 
the Sui dynasty {58l-bl7j (Book Ft2) which states: 

The people of this country are skilled in throwing a discus’kniie; 
it has the size of a mirror, in the middle is a hole and the edge is 
like a saw; when they throw it at a man, they never fail to hit 
him, Their other arms are about the same as China. Their cus¬ 
toms resemble those of Gtmbodja and the productions of thr 
country are the same as of Siam. When one commits murder or 
theft, they cut off his hands, and when adultery has been com¬ 
mitted, the culprit has his legs chained for the time of one year. 

W, P. Grocncveldt infers that these early Chinese sources refer to die 
northern coast of Sumatra where the rulers were Hindus professing 
Buddhism. Other areas of Sumatra did not recognize the authority of 
those rulers.* 

More accurate! historically are the accounts of two Arabian travelers 
in the ninth century that refer to a large island by the name of Ramoi; 
the characteristics and details assigned to it identify it as Sumatra. 
Marco Polo, in the later thirteenth century, positively reached Suma- 
lta, E and mentions in his writings that the place was an important marl 
much frequented; by traders from the southern provinces of China. He 
speaks of “'Saracen merchants" inhabiting the towns who are “ „ , „ of 
the faith of Mahomet . . while Still Others who live in the mountains 
"live like Ereasls and were in the practice of eating human Itesh . . . kill 

3, kiui4hnv4 was the maternal uncle, and S'ut1dJ»idaiM tlir Kuhn-. gj Buddha. 11 
would thus, teem that primers pf this ancient land w^re imniiflr*_£iti frrmi ImrSiq who 
Were related i* a HiitMhiilic culture. 

4 Hixtofieai N«tts air tnJiaesiti and Jlhduvu CatttpilrdJram Chtiu w .'Fo-ur^.ri f Djakarta. I960'.. 
5. Marsdun rspcH-ta, [lie year jli i230; Dr. StK-lcsmono prefers 1295, 


and devour such strangers caught amongst them as cannot pay a 
ransom. 1 "* 

In tins chapter it is necessary to distinguish specific peoples and iheir 
cultural traits, Specially important to Sumatran weapons and com¬ 
bative systems are the MeiLzirigkitbau, die Atjencse, 7 the Barak, ! the 
kejang, the pcoplf of the [ pong, the aborigines known as Orang 
Kuhn and Orang Clugu, and the so-called delates, or ScEairs. 

Before passing on to specific discussions involving the combative 
traits of these major groups, it is well tu rdicet briefly on the sanguinary 
achievements Ibr which ihe Sumatrans have become famous. While 
much of what is told is within the realm of manufactured hyperbole, 
as much perhaps belongs within ttie realm of truth. 

The Sumatran's preference for what has been called “'the Gothic 
appeal to the sword ' is not fiction. The bladed weapon is (lie core of 
his fighting arts and is strengthened beyond its mrrhamcal attributes by 
the strongest feelings of superstition. Fen Sumatrans, some persons are 
bttuflh, that is, '‘sacred" or "invulnerable." By some mystic and unex¬ 
plainable power these persons Hire able to withstand (hr penetration uf 
x blade; sometimes the blade Is turned away or bent in despair upon 
contact with the person's body. 

When approaching combat the Sumatran may enter with daring 
made possible by self-fortification with opium; sufficient quantities arc 
taken to render themselves insensible to danger and pain. But, as warns in his History af Sumatra, "... the resolution for the act 
precedes, and is not the eflrti of the intoxication,” 

Sumatran lighting men take great pride in their weapons and will not 
be parted from them, however primitive the weapons may seem to 
modern man. He has faced conflict and death almost daily and his 
weapons are symbols of the desire to conquer, to stay alive in his society, 
one of the most primitive in the world. 

Mcnangkabau was (he principal sovereignty of Sumatra in days of 
old," attending its authority over most of the island and receiving 

6. H. Yule. Trmtfi of Xiarca Pah i ndited, by H. CordiiT, 2 veils.. New York; Charta 
Scribner’s Sons, 3D03i. 

7. The fH-oplf Aljeh (the correct Rttmanization i have been given the corrupted 
(unites of Athin or Admit (Arhmcsr ur AcheoHMI by turopeam. 

$ Corrupted by Europeans somei i mei iu flatta, Uatlxi, or P.malr 

13. Tradition tells af The hamt deriving from the weirds mraiTJi^ (to win) and Aarim* 
(buffalo One vi-rtion spt-iiht of a fifth l ln-Lsvecn a buFFaht and a nger in which the 
firmer wn victorious, Impressed, the natives adapted the idea cd “winning buUa lo rr 
for tbt name of ilieir society, which patterned its tuinbaUvettrengih after the buffalo. 
Another version speaks of a rival power who, wtshinft tu subjugate the niTivn, urwlr-r 
Threat of military might oflercd a berm between iLi ktllLT huNaln and one la ba 
chosen bv the natives as the deriding moans. In a victor-tail e-ill btmt, the natives 
putrd a younjt calf again*! the killer buffalo. ’Ilse raif, fit M with razor-sharp blades 
oil tlx head, lock to suckle and m ns duinft, mortally wounded the killer buffatu By 
this clever ruse the natives gained thru independence. 


homage from ih t must powerful kingdoms, Its area Jay just under ihr 
equinoctial line, nearly in tbe tcnlef It wraS bounded by the 

Palembang and Siak rivers on the (astern side and situated between (he 
Manjuta (or Itadrapura) and Singkrl rivens on the west, The present 
scat of die kingdom lies at the rear of a mountainous district called 
Tiga-blaa Kotu (iniplyitig thirteen fortified and confederated towns}. 

The Menangkabau arc known as Orang Maliyo, or ‘‘Maliys” but 
their precise origin is unknown, Myths, lablrs, and quas i.-hist erica I rec¬ 
ords posit various possibilities. Annals and historical records of the 
Menimgkahau arc rare, but all deduce their origin from two brother, 
Ferapatisirbataog and Kri Taman gguiigiii], who were supposed to have 
been passengers on Noah's Ark. Landing at Pajtmhang nr near it (on an 
isle named LangLi-pura), they proceeded to the mountain Singumtang- 
guntang arid then Later to Priangan, which is even today regarded as 
the ancient capital of Menangkabau. It is tins stock of people which Later 
migrated to the Malay Peninsula to form Important colonies there. 
Evidence of this exists in two Malayan bonks, the 7'aju assalatin [Makuta 
stgda raja-raja ), or “The Crown of All Kings/ 1 and Sulalat assalatin 
(Ptnurun-an Stgala raja-raja), or “ The Descent of All (Malayan i Kings.” 
Both Petrus van der Worm !'16?7] and F„ Valentijn (1726] verify the 
contents. In these works k is shown that the Malayans originally came 
from ihc kingdom Palembang on the island of Indalus (now Sumatra). 
A leader-prince Sri Tetri Huwana, descended from Iskander ; Alexander) 
the Great, then emigrated (f. 1 IbU) to the southeastern extremity of the 
Malay Peninsula (then named Ujtmg Taoalib They built the city of 
Singapura, and aroused the jealousy of the Majapahif. In 1252, hard 
pressed by the Majapahit, they reared northward, then swung westward 
to found Ma]aka (Malacca). 

More accurate historical records are available from the early six¬ 
teenth century. Menangkabau, as a kingdom, is positively identified 
and the martial ardor of the people confirmed. Linschoten in 1601 
wrote; "At Meuancabo excellent poniards made, called mats; best 
weapons of ah the orient, 1,310 Argtmola in lb09 pointed out: “A vessel 
loaded with eretm manufactured at Mtnanc&bo and a great quantity 
of artillery ... a species of warlike machine known and fabricated in 
.Sumatra many yeans before they were introduced by Europeans,” 11 

But the first European arrivals already saw the Menangkabau in 
decline. Their pre-Islam culture with its probable Hindu roots profes¬ 
sing a religion of Brahma and showing mixtures of Persian ideas was all 
but gone. The society the Europeans first witnessed was now completely 
under Islamic influence, This seven th-ceniury Arabian import and its 

]0. }lu Vtyitgt af jakn Huyghtn ivin Litathaltn l» tilt £orf tn/iiti (an old English (raruSa- 
ii«n [1509] edited by A. C. Bumdl *nd I 1 . A. Trir Juued by itw HlUuyt Society}, 

It. William Minden, Huiory $/ Sumatm (Kuala Lufii|)ur: Oxford Uni vanity Fr«a 
|3rc| Ed.], 1966), 


conversion of (he original (aboriginal) Menangkabau natives arc not 
entirely an undetslcKX] process. Marsden {History of Sumatra) dies ihr 
records of Marco Rata (e. J290J which imply that the populace had 
embraced the faith; 11 f hT the prop] r of this empire, by their conversion 
to Mahometanism, and consequent change of manners, have lost in a 
greater degree than some neigh Injuring tribes, She genuine Sumatran 
character." Sultan Mohammed Shah (reign I57G-1333) is traditionally 
reckoned as the first royal convert. Muslim annals would prefer to 
antedate the tradition and cite the arrival or a Xcrif (descendant of 
Khalils) from Mecca named Faduha Sri Sultan Ibrahim, who settled in 
Sumatra Menangkabau country and was welcomed by the Menang¬ 
kabau loLinder-prmces of legend, Fcrhaps all thai can he said positively 
is that there wan a pre-Islam Menangkabau and a later one dominated 
by the Islamic code. Both cultures have influenced the native's weapons 
and fighting arts. 

The titles and epithets assumed by the Muslim royalty speak of 
J[ . H , a lance named lambing iattibitra, „ . . 5I or "the sword named efwrak 
rimattdang-gpi" which received 190 gaps in its conflict with the fiend Si 
Kalimuno, a hideous mythological snake, before slaying that monster, 
and ul ‘‘, , , the frit formed of the soul of steel” which expresses an un¬ 
willingness at being sheathed and show* itself ptaaed when drawn, and 
yet of iL n lance formed of a twig of iju |vegetable production with fibers 
like horsehair]. 1 ' Personalities such as Maharaja Durja were recorded 
thus; "He is drradful in battle and not to be conquered, bis courage 
and valor being matchless. 5 ' 

■Subsequent to the death of Sultan Alif in I6B0, the Menangkabau 
fractionated into various independencies. English and Dutch coni* 
mercial interests played one against the other. Destructive wars were 
fought and the European learned the terror of the native fighting skills, 
Indrapu ra, one of the first and most powerful independencies, involved 
itself with a splinter government from its seat of authority in the form of 
the Ayer Aji; in a 1701 succession struggle great numbers of Europeans 
were massacred. Ayer Aji dwindled in importance and Indrapura fell 

From the ruins of Indrapura emerged Anak-sungei, which, by Eng¬ 
lish intervention in 1695,. rose to commercial importance. The Passant- 
man areas on the northernmost edge of Menangkabau area and Pria- 
man on the coast fell under the sway of the Atjeh, "whose monarch? 
made them tremble in their turn."' Siak was a maritime power and Raja 
Ismael (reign 17001- b recorded as "... . one of the greatest pirates in 
those seas" who frequently attacked the Malay Peninsula. Jambi wu in 
the Limun country and, though inferior to Siak, was commercially im¬ 
portant. The natives of the area had a bad reputation, however, and 
the merchants of Bengal arc reported to have dealt with them, "at the 
point of the sword." ,1 

12. Ibid. 


Palembang in the Musi district was A port Eor sflips from Madura* 
Bali* the Celebes, and Java, it encouraged the continental merchants 
from Cambodia* Siam, China* Indochina* and Burma to settle, It was 
destroyed in 1660 by the Dutch who buik a fort on the marshy tract just 
above the river delta. Inland from Paieinbang are vast tracts of land 
inhabited by little-known tribes with strange customs, such as with the 
inhabitants of Blida. When a child is born there, the father* suspicious 
of its origin, invokes his right to test the fidelity of his wife by throwing 
the baby into the air and catching it on the tip of his spear. It k said, that 
a baby suffering no wound is a legitimate child. The common knowledge 
of this custom has practically reduced adultery to nonexistence* for the 
"unfaithful" wife also receives a thrust of the spear. 

The "‘indefatigable traveller” Charles Campbell in 1800 investigated 
the littlc-knrewn area of Korinchi, inland and back of the range of high 
mountains which bordered Indrapura and Anak-sungri. He descrilics 
l he inhabitants as "well-knit id their limbs' 1 and " , ,. almost all of them 
had stwnr or small daggers al thrir sides.” Strangely enough* "They 
make gunpowder, 15 says Campbell, "and it is a commun sport among 
the young boys to lire it out of bamboos. In order to increase its strength, 
in their Opinion* they mingle it with pepper-dust,'" 13 They arc suspicious 
of and constantly on guard against intrusions by any other than their 
own stock. They fight from ambuscade. The people of the Korinchi area 
bear the spirit of independence and engage in frequent tribal warfare. 

The journals of Lieutenant Hastings Dare, commander of an expedi¬ 
tion of eighty-three fepty officers and men* five tawarr, twenty-two Ben- 
gals, and eighteen Bugis guards, tell much about the combative habits 
and weapons of the natives of the Ipu, Serampei, and Sungeitenang 
areas bordering Korinchi, The expedition was sent to quell the uprisings 
of natives in those areas, late in 1804. 

The natives used ranjan against the expedition. The rttnjau are bam¬ 
boo stakes sharpened al each end* with the more pointed end protrud¬ 
ing from the ground where they are set fast in the turf. The tip exposed 
is hardened by dipping it in oil and charring it in a low temperature 
flame. The ranjau are planted on footpaths, sometimes erect, sometimes 
at an angle, and concealed by leaves and growth. They pierce the Foot 
when stepped on, leaving a dangerous wound which is irritated and 
inflamed by the hairy surface of the rsnjau and prevented from healing 
by the nature of this substance; one puncture is fatal. 

Pare reports that these natives behead all prisoners, fix the head on a 
long pole, and take it to their villages as a trophy where it is addressed 
by all in abusive language. Spears are installed by the Serampei natives 
to be projected by various means. Attached to a large stone* which is 
suspended from a sturdy tree bough, the multiple spearheaded stone 
Can be swung pendulum like in to an aggressor's ranks as he approaches. 

IS, Ibid. 


Dare reports the men as wearing £ri.s- held on their person by twisted bits 
of brass wire around their waists, 

The Mcnangkabau prepare ior war by marching displays and loud 
percussion music. However, iheir actual tactics on the battlefield are the 
exact opposite. Stealth, trickery, acid ruses made to lure the enemy into 
ambush are their favorite methods, ['hey use horses frequently, terrain 
permitting, largely to avoid (he ranjtiu that stud the ground. The govern¬ 
ment of the Menangkabau is feudal. The ulubaUng are military officers 
who arr bodyguards nl the sovereign. When dispatched singly they are 
some of the best assassins in the world, arid known (in English transla¬ 
tion) as 1 'champions.” They fight for the prince-leader called a r&jtt 
.maharaja, wng de prriitan), or sultan. 

All warriors serve without pay. Plunder is put into a collective pool 
and divided among the warriors according to military merit. The 
process of division is not without personal feuding. They make use of 
regulated periods of attack, commencing a temporary truce at sunset 
and recommencing battle at daybreak. Occasionally, in conference with 
the enemy, they agree to fight only during certain hours. 

The most warlike people in Sumatra are the Aljch. “That enterpris¬ 
ing people who caused so many kingdoms to shrink from the iemour of 
their arms,” writes Marsden {History of Sumatra) of the Portuguese, ''met 
with nothing hut disgrace in their attempts against Achltl. ■ . The 
history of the Aljch involves far more than their homelands which 
occupy tlte northeastern tip of Sumatra and extend to a southernmost 
boundary which, though it has varied over the years, touches on the 
empires of the fiutak and Menangkabau cultures. 

The Atjeh differ considerably from other Sumatrans, bring taller and 
stouter as well as darker in complexion than most other natives on the 
island. The Atjch have positive signs of west Indian culture in their 
society. In religion they are now Islam dominated- They are expert 
seamen, hold navigators, and adventurers without equal who built a 
considerable maritime force, I hr the purposes of both commerce and war. 
Their Aalabmg and jiubr plying the waters off Sumatra are long, narrow 
boats with two masts and double or single outrigging. Their principal 
use is as war boats which mount guns and carry many warriors. 

The early history of the Atjch is conjecture and only with sixteenth- 
century reports are reliable facts to be had. The supreme authority of 
thrir land is vested in the king or sultan. Inferior to him, but Important 
are his “military champions," or utubatung , who are armed with bladtd 
weapons qf horrible types and also firearms. 

Atjch society does not tolerate crimes within its own structure. No 
commutation is allowed. Petty theft requires that the criminal he sus¬ 
pended from a tree! a heavy weight tied to his legs. It may substitute 
the severing of a finger, a hand, or leg, according to the degree of the 
theft. Robbery is punishable by drowning, then exposing the dead body 
on a stake in public for days on end. Acts of impropriety against inrnn 


("priests'l are awarded burnLng-aLive-ai-the-staJtc p unish men t. Adultery 
Or rape is handled sportingly with the offender made to stand in an open 
space* gadubong (a long-bladed knife) in hand, surrounded by former 
friends. If the accused can cut his way through his captors, he is treed. 
However, he is usually cut to pieces in a mailer of minutes, then buried 
like a diseased buffalo. 

Early friendship between the commercially aggressive Portuguese 
and the Atjeh soon soured over commercial interests ai Malacca. Pira¬ 
tical conduct against Portuguese ships and properties soon brought the 
Portuguese into action. Jorge de Brito attempted to reclaim such pro¬ 
perties in the early sixteenth century but was defeated by the stalwart 
Atjeh. Brito himself fell in battle, an arrow through his cheek and a 
lance through his thigh. 

By 1522 Raja Ibrahim had developed a violent dislike- for the Portu¬ 
guese and thereafter indulged in it to excess. In a ruse which asked for 
and received Portuguese military 3 id, the cunning Ibrahim turned on 
his would-be allies and massacred them. The Portuguese were not with¬ 
out retaliation, In another batik, a siege laid against a Portuguese-held 
fort, Ibrahim tasted the excellence of the European military skill. 
Maredrn describes it well in his Mifor? of Sumatra: 

The night time was preferred by these people [Atjeh] for making 
their attacks, as being then most secure from the effect of fire- 
arms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the 
powder would not bum. As soon as they found themselves per¬ 
ceived, they set up a hideous shout, and fixing their scaling lad¬ 
ders, made of bamboo, and wonderfully light, to the number of 
six hundred, they attempted in force their way through the em¬ 
brasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at 
length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence 
against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before 
them like a hedge, and ovrniet all the men who were un it. Java- 
Jins and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but 
upon setting fine to powder under their trunks, they drew back 
with precipitation, in spite of all the efforts of their drivers; over¬ 
threw their own people; and flying to the distance of several 
miles, could not again be brought into the Lines. The Achinese 
upon receiving this check, thought to take revenge hy setting tire 
to some vessels dial were in the dock yard; hut this proved an 
unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occa¬ 
sioned, the garrison were enabled to point their gtms, arid did 
abundant execution, 

Barbaruy continued unabated between Atjeh and the Portuguese; it 
was a two-way affair. In the hands of the successor 10 Ibrahim, Ala- 
eddin-shah, the persistence of Atjeh aims to overthrow the Portuguese 


is epitomized. He bid fiqge to Malacca twice in 1537 and 4< , . . the sea 
waa covered, with dead, floating bodies. . . .”■* A very brier lull in the 
hostilities bftde the Portuguese to send two ships to Atjeh waters. There, 
together with a Dutch vessel, the Atjeh demonstrated their murderous 
tactics as they slipped aboard each of the ships arc] killed many of the 
crew while they slept. John Davis,, pilot of ore of the Dutch craft, 
recorded of the Atjeh when the attack was countered, 44 , . . how they 
were killed and how well they were drowned.” The English bred much 
better with the Atjeh. Upon the appearance of 1 heir fleet in 1602, James 
Lancaster who commanded ii W*s given .a royal reception by the Atjeh 
monarch and given a gift of two kris. 

Ala-eddin-shah lived to a reported age of ninety-five, which was too 
long Ihr Ids sun Muda who, impatient to Succeed his father, imprisoned 
him and thus contributed to his death a short time later, Sultan Mud a 
was, like his father, ''passionately addicted to women, gaming and 
drinkT 1 * He surrounded himself with three thousand females wltom he 
made his guards. His occupations were the “hath and chase" while 
affairs of stale deteriorated. While friendly with the Dutch and English, 
whom he entertained wilh gory fights between elephants, tigers, and 
buffaloes, he was a cruel and sanguinary man who imprisoned his own 
mother whom hr suspected uf conspiring against him. 

Sultan Mud a gathered considerable military power. His fleets num¬ 
bered thousands of ships, manned by scores of thousands of men, Some 
two thousand brass guns and small arms in proportion made up his 
arsenal. Hundreds of trained elephants led his warriors into battle. Two 
hundred horsemen patrolled his residential palace. By employment of a 
network uf spies, he was able to gather valuable intelligence about his 
potential enemy and victim. So well Laid were his military plans that 
they revealed nothing until executed. Marsden * History of'Sumatra; sum¬ 
marises the man: “Insidious political craft, and wanton delighl in 
blnod, united in him to complete the character of a tyrant.'* 

In a sea battle in 1SE5 between ihe Atjeh and Portuguese, the Atjeh 
suffered a loss of fifty ships and twenty thousand men. Another altempt 
at Malacca also ended in disaster as the Atjeh flag ship Terror of the 
Warld was boarded and five hundred of her crew slaughtered. The 
Atjeh fleet was scutlled and scarcely a mar escaped. 

With the fall of Portuguese do mi nation over Malacca at the hands of 
the Dutch (11141), the Atjeh Empire subsided and fell too, just as if the 
Portuguese strength had been necessary for her military vigor. What 
remained to function Was of a significantly different character than the 
early empire and Stood, as it dues today, in Lesser political consequence 
and military might than general history need record. 

Early Chinese records tell of the country of Mflkur, situated in West 

14. Ibid. 

15. Ibid. 


Sumatra, 14 whose people were known as the pro-pie of “tattooed 
faces' 1 because of their habit of adorning their faces with three-pointed 
green figures. VV. P. Groeneveldt surmises that these reports refer to an 
advanced establishment of the Batak, those inhabitants of Sumatra who 
arc in almost every way quite dissimilar In other natives of the island^ 

fiatak land is bounded on the north by Atjeh country and by the 
Mmangkahau domains in the south. It ties principally in the narrowest 
stretch of the island’s upper neck in a mountainous region bordered Oh 
the east by the Straits of Malacca and on the west by the Indian Ocean. 

In stature the Batak are a bit shorter than the Mcnangkabau. Their 
complexions, too, are fairer, perhaps due to the fact that they prefer not 
to frequent the sea, confining Ihc:mSeLves by choice to the remote inland 
areas. Their origins are unknown though it is evident that both ancient 
Hindu and Chinese cultures influenced them. By their religion, which is 
strictly Eion-lslaitiic, they posit obscure principles of origin revoking 
around three deities as rulers of the world; Batara-guru, Sori-pada, and 
and Mangalla-bulang. 17 

The Baiak arc imbued with a strong sense of independence. However, 
contemptuous of authority imposed upon them, they exhibit a super¬ 
stitious veneration for the Menangkabau rulers. They are govrrnrd By 
a supreme association of three raja who oversee countless petty chief* 
tains. Disputes are frequent, and on the slightest provocation they in¬ 
dulge in their favorite occupation—warlare. 

There is one rude cultural habit that makes (he Batak unique on 
Sumatra. They are the only known anthropophagi (man-eaters.) there. 
This horrible propensity has greatly declined in modern times, Bui can¬ 
not be said lo be entirely absent, 'fbe tultcm is copiously recorded by 
the early records of Europeans: Nicolo Di Conti (1449}: “In a certain 
part of this Island {Sumatra] called Bated], the people eat human flesh. 
They arc continually at war with their neighbors, preserve the skulls of 
their enemies as treasure, dispose of them as money, and he is accounted 
the richest man who has most of them in lbs house." 18 Odoardus Bar- 
lioSa {3 5l6j; "There is another kingdom to the Southward, which Is the 
principal source ol'gold^ and another inland, called Aaru [borders on 
Batak country] where the inhabitants are pagans, who eai human flesh, 
and chiefly of those they have slain in war,” 1B Dc Butt* (1563): ,L The 
natives of that part of the island which is opposite to Malacca, who are 

]&. The yirfjf-jKdi of 14It? retards much information about early Sumatra. 

|7, At (hr lime whe> the earth WJU CW W tJ by a.t«r, ihe- Batak Twlteuie, Batirj' 
fury 5 daughter, named E^iiu-orLi-liulaci, descended from heaven to earth, hui having 
■au place io land her father let fall Front heaven a mountain named Uakarra. which 
became a dwelling place for hU child, From th:i mountain all other brad proceeded 
and from S-yiii-urla-lmliiti'a six children, bum uifi earth, sprunij [lie whole human race. 

IS. William Manden, fiiitwy of Jimwlra (Kuala Lumpur: Qxftjfd Uni vanity Plm 
[3rd Ed.], 1966). 

19. Ihid- 


called flats, eat human flejh and arc the moat savage and warlike of ail 
the land. 13 ® 0 Beaulieu (1622): "The inland people , r - eat human flesh; 
never ransom prisoners, but rat them with peppers and salt." 111 

The early Batak ate human flesh, not as a delicacy or to satisfy 
hunger; for them it was a ceremonial occasion. It was their way of show¬ 
ing their detestation of crimes and of punishing the culprit by an igno¬ 
minious method. It was further a savage display of revenge and an 
insult to the unfortunate victim. Though the Batak fighting man did 
not specially spare; rnemy live;** unwounded prisoners were never eaten; 
they were sold as slaves. The wounded and slain were eaten with great 
relish, as were criminals (especially adulterers) of their own society. 

Criminals were tried, and if sentenced, the raja sent a cloth to veil the 
victim's head as well as a dish of salt and many lemons. The victim was 
slaked to a post and spears were hurled at him until he expired. Torture 
or unduly prolonged killing was not the custom. The Batak then sur¬ 
rounded the dead person,, hacked the body lo bits with their knives, 
dipped the pieces of flesh in the dish of salt and applied lemon juice and 
red pepper, and then broiled the hunks which they then ate in great 
satisfaction. Cases have been reported wherein fanatical savagery caused 
the Raiak to tear flesh from a carcass directly with his teeth. A warm 
body, freshly slain, was preferred and devoured quickly. Skulls were 
hung as trophies but could be ransomed to the victim's family or 

Charles Miller, eighteenth-century botanist, reported a visit to 
Batak territory' during which he saw the suspended head of a man whose 
body had been completely eaten a few days tjefore; the head '"was 
offensive l® the smell." Miller further wrote: "In thejqhjywor building 
in which the raja receives strangers, we saw a man's skull hanging up 
which he told us was hung there as a trophy, it being the skull of an 
enemy they had taken prisoner, whose body they had eaten about two 
months ago.’ 3 ” 

Giles Holloway, an English under in Batak country, reported that on 
attempting collection of overdue accounts one Racak excused himself by 
saying that be would have paid sooner bul had to stay to cat his share 
of a man who committed adultery with his wife „ . . the ceremony took 
three days and it was just the past evening chat the Batak had finished." 

W. Hayes made further recordings of Batak cannibalism. In a puni¬ 
tive action against a Batak chieftain named Punei Manunguxn at Nega¬ 
tion bul, Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, both of 

20. Da Asia. Dos Frilti yitf os P#t tugiiczn juttam tio JtjniifinMtiifl t con^ania das marts t 
Smai Jo Qrirnlr, Pttkb Vgund*, parte 19 (Lisbofl, 077), 

if I. XX til ■ am Marsde-n. ttiilun of Sumatra (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford Urliv0tt|y Press 
[3rd Ed.], ]«6;. 

n. itui.L 

33. It.d. 


whom had been captured by the chief and slain, All three tiodies had 
large pieces missing from their thighs. 

One of Hayes' stpoy had been killed by the Batak in the attack; 
Hayes had decided to leave the body until the chase subsided. Later he 
found the head of the stpay fully scalped and hanging in a village, a 
finger transfixed upon a bamtjoo fork, still warm from a fire, A few 
hundred yards from this gruesome scene, Hayes (bund a large leaf full 
of human flesh, mixed well with lime juice and pepper, He had Sur¬ 
prised the Batak in the act of eating the fallen sepoy. 94 

Miller's excursions into Batak country provide some of the first ac¬ 
counts by Europeans which deal extensively with the culture of these 
proud people. In regard to their habit of cannibalism Miller points out 
that Batak hospitality wttt of the highest carder to both himself and the 
members of his group. In general, the Batak proved to be inoffensive 
and gave little disturbance to European trading establishments. He 
wrote of Terimbaru t 

The raja being informed of our intentions to come there, sent his 
son, and between thirty and forty men, armed with lances and 
match-lock guns, to meet us, who escorted us to their kampong, 
beating gongs and firing guns all the way. 

And still along the same tone, of Sa-masam: 

„ , , the raja of which place, attended by sixty or seventy men, 
well armed, met os and conducted us to his kampang^ where he 
had prepared a house for our reception, treating us with much 
hospitality and respect. 

The Batak of the Ankola district told Miller: “We indeed cat men as a 
punishment for their crimes and injuries to us; but they [Padambula 
district Batak] way-lay travellers in order to cut them up like cattle. 1 ' 
Hayes too, when questioning Batak about their cannibalism received 
the following curt reply, “ , ., you know it is our custom; why should we 

The order and peace of Batak society is well regulated- Theft among 
themselves is rare. Robbery and murder are punishable by death, as is 
adultery. When not engaged in war their society is free of tribal itrife. 

The Orang-u!u, as the Rejang are sometimes called, arc inland natives 
composed of four principal tribes, which are traditionally recorded as 
having sprung from four brothers who, though separate, nevertheless 
stood united In efforts for defense of their Sands. Their country lies 
somewhat geographically centered, perhaps a bit offset to the south, 

24. Ibid. 

?5- Ibid. 


bounded on the northwest by the kingdom of Anak Suugti, on the 
southeasl by ihc Bencooten River, and in the east by the Falembang 

The Rejang, according to Maraden, are ilie most typical Sumatrans. 
They are below middle stature, wdl proportioned, and have smalt 
wrists and ankles. They are beardless,” and file and otherwise distort 
their teeth, stretch their ears, and flatten their heads. In general, they 
arc stronger than coastal inhabitants, especially in the Lower Limbs, They 
are not particularLy warlike and perhaps engage onEy in intertribal con¬ 
flicts forced upon therm Possessed of a latent courage, the Rejang is 
aroused on the spur of the moment, a quality which permits him to 
perform desperate deeds in combat, 

Rejang society is strictly rrgulatcd by voluntary submission to au¬ 
thority of those appointed who have qualified themselves for such 
positions of leadership. Religion plays no part in their government. 
Each ifusun (village] is under a dupatr (magistrate); the whole under a 
^o-^erax! (chief). The laws are strict. If a man attempts to seize another 
in the act of robbery and touches his trp'j, these are crimes punishable by 
fine. If one injures another with a stick, he is fined. In a dispute which 
the krif drawn, he who draw ! S first is guilty, and fined, A personal 
oath is highly valued among Rejang, Marsden reports in his History of 
Sumatra that a Rejang man is 

, ., impressed with an idea of invisible powers, but not of his own 
immortality, regards with awe (he supposed instruments of their 
agency, and swears on krites t bullets* and gun barrels; weapons 
of personal destruction, 

The pangtran of SungeMamo used a political oath of water in which 
Copper bullets had been steeped; drunk by hil chiefs to ensure their 
loyally, (he oath was irrevocable. 

The chief weapons of the Rejang arc the kujttr, or spear, and kris. The 
latter weapon may be seen thrust through the sash around the mid- 
section of every male Rejang as he meets the demands of daily life. Even 
boys leas than fourteen years, old may be seen wearing a kfis* Both weap¬ 
ons arc frequently objects of barter, and appear not to have personal 
involvements with the original owners. 

On particular days, such as those which terminate a (ail, war games 
are performed publicly. Preparatory to fencing matches with sticks and 
km, and accuracy contests with the spear, |he combatants practice 
strange rituals, using violent contortions of their bodies and acrobatic 
gyrations to work up a degree of frenzy; women often take part in these 
events. Little running or jumping is practiced* however, because of the 

£6 Artificially induced by prrpubrrty process^ nl imng lAun.-jm quick-lime) and 

pluckiiLir tn. kilt hair rnoLi, 

SUMATRA, NIAS, ME WT AW A c* mouw 121 

great care they must take when moving barefooted over the ground f 
which is covered with insects and thorny growth. The use of ranjau by 
enemy tribes also makes careful walking a necessity. 

Personal feuds are the most usual causes for recourse to arms. Such is 
the traditionally recorded story about R add in Siban, the head of a tribe 
in the district of Manna. R add in bad attempted io procure a young 
virgin for his brother who was in love with her, but the pangfr/ui had 
managed the deal first and gave the girl to his brother Lessut, as his 
bride. But the young girl herself was passionately in love with Ruddin's 
brother and after her marriage managed to enjoy his bed. Lessut, dis¬ 
covering this affair, killed Raddin's brother to revenge the dishonor of 
his name. Two younger brothers of Radd in caught both Lessut and 
Raja Mu da {younger brother of the pangeraa) at a cockfight and chal¬ 
lenged them by Arif. Lessut was stabbed to death, but Raja Ntuda kilted 
the aggressors though he himself suffered grave wounds. Raddin ap¬ 
proached, spear in hand, and not seeing Raja Muda, went berserk upon 
viewing his dead brothers i he stabbed the already dead Lcfiut with his 
spear in a frenzy. Raja Muda, dying, crept up behind Radd in and 
stabbed him before expiring. Raddin doted his hand over the wound, 
walked away from the horrible scene, then died quietly, Some versions 
tell of Raja Muda's miraculous recovery, though he lived on as a deplor¬ 
able cripple from his wounds. 

The Lampong country, the area in the southern extremes of Sumatra 
which lies below a line extending from Palembang on the east coast to 
the Padang-guchi river in the west, confines various tribes which are of 
an unknown origin. These people show the strongest affinities to the 
Chinese, particularly In the facial contours and 4yca, Tradition records 
their origins simply as "from the hills'’; beyond this it Is impossible to 
trace their ancestral background. 

From early limes onward, inhabitants of the Lam pong have been 
harassed by higher culture areas, such as established on Java, They have 
in general hern no match for these depredations, largely because they 
employ no firearms. They fight with spear* long enough to require 
carrying by three men. The foremost acts as a guide for the point and 
cover* himself and others with a huge shield. Ambush is ihcir forte. 
Kris, invar, spears, and blowpipes are the usual weapons, though the 
last named is used primarily for game. 

The Lampong are governed in a feudal way by appointed leaden. 
The pdHggau, Of “warrior," IS a superior and has arbitrary authority 
over the people. 

In the inland district of Samangka in the Strait of Sunda area lives a 
ferocious tribe called the Drang Abung, who are headhunters and take 
(heir ghastly trophies to their du-ruft for exhibition and ceremonies. Fre¬ 
quently engaged in warfare, all enemies who fall into their hands suffer 
the same fate—they are beheaded- Islam has penetrated these areas, 
but many of the natives still cling in their old. primitive beliefs. Long 


knives and spears srr Ehc dominant offensive weapons; the r anjau is used 

The so-called Delates have played au important role in Indonesian 
{especially Sumatran) weapons and fighting-art development. 11 Mat- 
lh« warned (in 1B72) that sea nomads, such as the Delates; were very 
rapidly losing their identity and that it would soon hr impossible to 
team nr evrn infer anything about their origins and history,“ Today 
this proclamation has all but come true in relation to their weapons 
and fighting arts. Only by dose examination of old records can some 
important bits be Learned, 

That the Delates were most respected and feared as pirates can be 
gleaned from old Portuguese recurds which usually define them, as a 
M . . . wild, treacherous, evil-bcarted, piratical people, hated by the 
sedentary population of the coast, P1M The rapid rise of Malacca's im- 
fjortance as a transshipment point fur cargo from east Asia to India at 
the end of the fourteenth century had seen Majapahit control extended 
to the coastal regions of Malaya, eastern Sumatra, western Borneo, and 
the islands of the South China Sea; after I3H9 this power dec lined 
quickly in favor of the Portuguese, 

Earliest records, such as those ofjoao dc Barros {Da jirtu), tell that 
after the Payaipeswara** fled Singapore he took with him "... a people 
rallied Delates [Cellates], persons who live on the sea, whose occupation 
is robbing and fishing. . . ," Still earlier Chinese records ( Ying-faiSheng- 
tan) speak of + ‘ , „ . inhabitants; , , , skilled in fighting on the water and 
therefore their neighbor? fear (hem/' Cod in ho d’Eredia {1613}, re¬ 
ported of the Delates, “They were a wild, cannibal race, who inhabited 
the coasl of Ujontaua [Singapore]. . „ Most detailed a re the writings 
of Barctto de Rtsende, a bit later in the seventeenth century; 

These Saletes are a wicked people and especially so to the Portu¬ 
guese, They are evil-hearted and treacherous and die best ipies 
the Dutch possess. Wherever, of the many places in this vicinity, 
our ships may be, they immediately inform the Dutch and lead 

27. t he word Olates {Striate*) b ihr PuriuHLiMe plural aj drrtvrd from the ejtprraiijorL 
Oraiig KrEai, the Malay name meaning "The people of the SirtflapcKre and Baram, 
Jiriiis." David Sojiher has made an adequate reportage on the origins and derivations 
of the nitrtf in hi? t ftwm ii (Singapore National Museum, I9ti5). 

20, '•BfteRj«ep*rhe nil Makawajsi hs 1 Legejldfcn," Btdj/irafen tal tie Taaf-, Lawi- m 
Vclkminmk bon ffi rjMmdkA- 1 rw'tT, H {I HU). 

29. I omi I'trei, Sumn Oriental (I51I-15). 

3t5. A Javaiii?r nobleman who fled Java after his unsutceisful coup and Killed on 
tike Malay Peninsula. there io bm-oinc nverlnrd afSi ngapore and Malacca by using 
ihe (.’elates to control chapping between. Sumatra and Malaya. 

31 "EreM-lia 1 '? fir*rription of Malacca, Meridional India and Cathay" (Translated 
from Fur LLi^ueae a ini annul a nil by J. V, Mills, Jmnul oj ihr MalafOR BfiintH tf ihr 
Rnyili A iirMtr Stkieh', 0 [April l*)30]J. 


them there; so that most of our losses ire due to them. This is 
because the Dutch give a great share of all thus seized, atid thus 
it is very necessary that pur fleets of pitas fmen'Of-warj and ships; 
ihil go to these straits lo wait fur the said fleets should make war 
as murk as passible on these Salehs and drive 1 [hem from these 
parts. 31 

It is natural that the Portuguese would paint the most terrible picture 
of the delates, for in the 1 'guerrilla warfare on the high seas" the Celntcs 
were urged and sometimes financed not only by European commercial 
and political enemies of Portugal but by Sumatran kingdoms as well, 
who feared Portuguese expansion- 

The Cel ales were the indigenes of the straits, having base camps on 
Singapore, the Riouw-Iangga Archipelago, the coastal areas of the 
Malay Peninsula, and on the east coast of Sumatra, especially in the area 
between the mouths of the Rokan and Kampar rivers. Portuguese ac¬ 
counts imply that [he delates did not frequent the Lampong, Batak, or 
Atjeh coasts. 

I n al I accounts* however, t here a re con tai ned sped he refe fences to t he 
fighting skills, weapons, and ferocity of the delates. It is highly probable 
that because of their nomadic life the delates were exposed lo a great 
number of different weapons and combative employments from the 
people they were in contact with [friendly or otherwise), and would 
therefore become the possessors of a wide range of weapons and tactics. 
Perhaps because of the delates there was a more positive transfer of 
weapons and tactics between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The 
relations of the delates to the wild Inhabitants of the Malay coasts, such 
as the Jakun, and the cultural mixing of the delates with the forest 
peoples, must be taken into account. 

■ MuaangkubuU 

The Menangkahau warrior ■[Fig. 79) is feared—and therefore re¬ 
spected—throughout the Indonesian Archipelago. Fighters of great 
skill and tenacity, their preference is for the bladcd weapon. The 
modern-day native is never without weapons. Traveling along the 
mountain mads, he is always ready for instant defense. By his garment, 
[he sating, he can strike, mask f or bind an assailant. With his umbrella, 
called the pajang, he can block, parry, or strike. In use of the pisau 
Mttlf (Fig. 80), a short-bladed knife, he becomes an effective knife 

The tambak, lambing, jfciy'wr [sometimes Aun/ar), arc Menangkabau 
spear names. The petfattfo rudw, pamandap, and kUettfORg are swords h 
carried slung at the side. The sewar and jaAi'n, as well as the ptsau fa/oti, 

IiJ‘2. David f>nph*r, 7^ Sta Ntitt\adii (-Singapore NaiHinaL Museum, 1965). 


arc short-bladed biivn used for close-quarter fighting and; assassina¬ 
tions (see Figs, 86, 87). 

A Metiangkabau kris differs somewhat From the Javanese and Bali¬ 
nese typrs, The blade is generally about fourteen inches in Length, not 
entirely straight but not especially forged in a marked curve. The Made 
is wavy (Fig. 81). lu finish is not smooth and [he usual process of polish¬ 
ing is neglected. The pamur process is produced by beating together* 
during Forging, steel and iron and then after coating* etching with acids. 
The temper of the blade is pronounced hardness, a quality which makes 
the blade a bit brittle. Handles or heads of the km are fashioned from 
ivory, the tooth of the dupng (sea-cow) or kuda ajer (hippopotamus), 
black coral* or fine-grained wood. Handies arc carved in the shape of 
curious figures and ornamented with gold and copper mixtures called 
juiajcr. The beak of a bird set on a body with humanlike arms is a favorite 
handle theme for carving, The sheath is formed from beautiful hard¬ 
wood, hollowed out, and neatly laced with split rutin (rattan). It may 
hr stained red around the lower part, sometimes plated with gold. 

The value of the Aru to the Mrnangltabau fighter is proportionate to 
the number of bodies it has penetrated- It is a mystically sacred and 
venerated object. It is placed on a cushion at the head of the bed when 
the fighter sleeps. 

In general lerms* all the dominant blade weapons of Sumatra show 
dilFerenres from those in eastern Indonesia. To Ircgin with, the km in 


Sumatra is of two types, the ins pangang (Fig-. 82) and [hr hrij 
The former is a long, rapier]ike blade, flat and narrow, often exhibiting 
a raised rib running the length, of the blade's midllne axis. Its handle is 
decorative and most commonly made out of horn or ivory. The irij 
bakari is what may loosely be described as a large variety or the Javanese 
km fiiehiL 

Smaller, evil-looking blades abound in Sumatra beyond what they do 
On Java of Ball. The lambai lada (Fig- B3) is said to be ol" Sumatran 
origin. Jt has a thick, flat blade, and its handle is usually adorned with 
a parrot-head figure, It i? sometimes called the lading, but the name is 
more properly reserved for blades made from an old spearhead and 
fitted to a handle. The Uitnbdk lada and the lading (Fig, 84) are double- 
edged with blade lengths varying from eight to sixteen inches. The 
btladau (Fig. Et5) is a curved dagger with a convex colling edge. It is 
extremely dangerous at close quarters and is used in a ripping fashion 
into the mjdscclion of the enemy. The junior (Fig, 86) is a gracefully 
arced blade, slender and used for thrusting actions. Another knife, the 
jdJim (Fig, 87), resembles the stater in general contour except that it 


K4 I he double-edged lading jmd jbi-a th, 


4M> Jnw with tim'd bLidi-*. 

Bfl. Koramiritr "ti^cr’j-cLaw" type weaponi. 


-H ' 1 - Mi-niici^J.yih-.iLi labit jivtii ullLLraJ Lik>!s and weapon]. 

possesses a straight blade. Must vifioUl of the Hot is the ^tiger't-claw'' 
type weapon, KnO’Wn as «hr 1 karambit (Fig. 88), it is a cursing knife 
modeled alter the Arab jambia, It is gripped with the hilt perpend i- 
CuUr to the ground h thumb over the Cap. The ttirrfingcr is inserted in a 
bole nil the bead of the hilt. The blade extends outward., convex surface 
to the right when held in the right hand, The is used in an up¬ 

ward, ripping manner into the bowels of the victim. 

Menangkabau agricultural tools serve admirably as effective weap¬ 
ons. The sabit, or sickle-type blades, arc common. There are several 
varieties (Fig. 89). The parang sdbit and llie kdmpdT sabit are notable. The 
Jailer type is curious insofar as design features are concerned. It ran be 
seen as a "three dimensional’' instrument, that is, the blade lying in a 
different plane than the hafting, which itself is angularly joined to 
occupy two specifically different planes. 

From their earliest times the Mvnangkabau have manufactured arms 
for 1 their own use and to supply the enormous Atjrh demand in the 
northernmost province of Sumatra. They mine, smelt, process, forge, 
and finalize by their own methods (hr necessary iron and steel. Portu¬ 
guese records mention the use of cannon \ it is established that the 
Mcnangkabau had this knowledge prior to the discovery of the passage 
from Europe by the Cape of Good Hope, 


Matchlocks wr.rc their first productions. Well-tempered barrels with 
true bores arc evident* 1 Shooting technique required the sighting ip he 
done by lowering the muzxlc to the target rather than raising it. They 
used [lie Dutch tnapang to refer to their pieces. Gunpowder was made, 
too,, hut its quality was reported as inferior.® 1 .Some rannnn were also 

At Pitching Luar are iron mines, the ore of which was used for the manu¬ 
facture of weapons, but had to he hand carried to Setimpuwong where 
it underwent smelting processes. European weapons, while used, did not 
gain full favor due to ihr fact that aru munition was d illicit It to replace. 
It was far easier to rely upon ualive-made firearms for which ammuni¬ 
tion was stocked. 

The/wWagang; is a hardwood instrument made of njang (a palm) wood. 
It is used as a yoke by persons to Carry loads in coolie fashion. The word 
means "merchant," ft is also an excellent weapon which ran instantly 
be brought into use by simply dumping the load being carried, The best 
ptndagang come from the Mentawai Islands. There, after a long process 
of soaking pieces ufnyiwg world in coconut oil > tbrCe years), the yoke is- 
fashioned \ craftsmen are in demand. 

Though there is a specific geographical area marking the core of 
Mr nsngkabau muntry* the people Can be found in Other places. Mars- 
den, in the eighteenth century, wrote in hi.s Hiftorr of Sumatra : "On the 
eastern side of the island they arc settled at the entrance of almost ail 
navigable rivers, where they more conveniently indulge their habitual 
bent lew trade and piracy." Their native rouulry is mountainous. 
Nature's environmental forces have made it necessary, no matter the 
area of residence, for the Mena rig kabau to have strong legs. If found in 
mountainous regions, their fiitsun are always situated on the bank of a 
river or lake and atop nf an eminence difficult to ascend for security 
reasons. Their houses are usually elevated some ten or twelve feet above 
the ground, held aloft oil piles. Here, safe from intrusion by wild t>rasl 
[tigers and reptiles abound) or hostile man, (firy daily make many 
ascents and descents by use of a solitary piece of notched timber. The 
light scaling ladder is hastily hai.Irtl up ill time of emergency. 

The Menangkabau fighter has unbelievable strength and recoil speed 
in his kgs- He can be seen fishing iu the streams, lakes, or coastal areas 
using only his feet to kill fish that venture loo close as he stands in 

33. Barreta weir wrought lay wrapping a ffanrned bar nf iron spirally round a cin ular 

nod and hammering until it imit^d as a lube. N* rifling prori"S3- was used in the earliest 
■ElixirIs. tW early barfebexhibit u neojlitltun Hcih|jt]i aild pfciL lit abiIiIv .Spiv inir-ns 
may be awn in the public museum in B-ukit tinggi. 

34, IVr-haps l hr proportion 4> miiLuri- or the physical proprrLu-s, nijrh as granulation, 
aiie, detrulsd from its propclLo-m: prop«titJ, The pictiis may abo h*v* Wn Iras 
than efficient in chambering, or the nature of the ammunition uied such ikat 
mu?jlf velocity ^rid mu* 7 le energy was Jess than optimum. Naturally, today bo ill 
modem breuriiis and j menu nil ion art HUpcriur anil itiluJi scnighl after. 


shallow water. Delivering kicks rapidly with a stunning effect, he kills 
fish with otw blow. A special feature of eastern coastal areas is the 
Menangkabau use of a mud board for swift movement over the flats ex- 
posed j.i fow ebb. 11 Kneeling lie may propel the rraft by one hand and 
foot in a pushing manner, or with both feet. He is able to do this for 
hours on end without rest. Mcnangkabau leg strength and flexibility is 
also put to good use in his hand-to-hand combative forms. 

It is not surprising therefore, to iind that Mcnangkabau pintjak-silat 
relies heavily upon leg tactics. Deep crouch and ground-sitting posture* 
[drpok and Jtmp&k] appear to the attacker to place the Menangkabau 
tighter in a position of disadvantage (Fig. 90). Bui he can,, in a flash, 
come out of his low ground-sitting posture into action with kicking 
tactics that are both deceptive and dangerous to the uninitiated. The 
tactic is applied in various ways by a great majority of Indonesian 
ftentjak-sitat systems. (For an interesting discussion concerning variation? 
sec p. 152,) So pronounced are such leg tactics that the expression 
nd&ngkak is a dialectal word. Si (he or she) and dmgkak (io kirk) refer to 
the people irt the Pajakumbuk area who breed the best horses in all 
Sumatra. All pmtjak-jilat in that area feature powerfully fast, liorselikc 
kicking actions. 

Though reliance is upon leg tactics, it not be mistakenly sup¬ 
posed that the MeEiangkahau fighter dcirs not use (or is ineffective with;, 
his hands and arms (Fig. 91), Hand and arm actions are exceedingly 
fast and skillful By one training method* one expert stands some twenty 
feet from a training partner who throws sharpened sticks at him. He who 
receives them docs so with a deliberate minimum of body action and, 
coupled to hand actions (which arc made freely) that cair.h the sticks in 
midair, circularly reversing the sticks and redirecting their trajectories 
back to tbr original thrower, develops great finesse with his hands. 
When high skill is attained, the sticks arc replaced by knives. A quantity 
of limes is always kept present. The juke of this acid fruit is used to 
clean the inevitable bloed stains from (he blades. 

Geographically speaking, of the twenty-three major styles of pentjak- 
silal found in Sumatra, the vast majority cciuera on the Mcnangkabau 
land area. Generally known as Mf^AACik a»ac, SELAT MENANGKABaU, or 
s,ri,A-r j-aimnn, the Mrnangkabau styles are the technical core for all 

3-!i. The [[LLnStrthiLnJ lb .1 pfasik cJevke aljotiE >.1*. fart in faflgth and about Iwct fail wiqfa- 
lit it somH imet stighily tuord at its furt-tiid. The ifavicr 11 used by ilrand-collHiirig 
fecal iKinwtk.tuffe a* rrpflrlH fa j K. I obias, van wneniogt naiir Ungga, 

RcW]) rtl MaJirJj," Tijdschrift itfor Jmfuch? Tool-, LtM'i- at Voiktnkundr, 10 (IB6I), of 
the Orang Kuala,. and by J. G. Sthcu (‘"Hrt jtrwjmgebcKi det Kateman, Bijtlraifr 
lot rfa tern nil van Onl-StUTIlIri*" Tijd>\Arift E'-twr Indwtir Twt- t L>rnd- m E WJLmA mu&, 
2’3 [tflMp. ti. K. (• , Unrrrstrr I'ht Junki iituf Sampan* of iht t 'mgizi. A Study in 
Liutint NilUtiidi Fteiearcfi. Vul. 1: fntraduc twit; arid (iuft if Ibt Etiuar? and Shanghai (rw, 
>lhang-hHii- Slmtiilical Department of ih* Icuprrtonttr Genial of Custom*, J947j 
report? a urn:! ,r device be cabs a '"nmduuuLtunH boat" known to Fihii crdLury u.e. 
Chines* in cltb- Yangtze drltn are* shares ofTun|lin; Hu. 


Meituig^abau ri!*t taciics; from a around- 
smi-ntf posture to a kid in thn-r 


ftJ, The use rif handi and afmj in M enangtahsu nisi, 

Sumatran ptntjak-sH&t- Actual]y* there arc very few Indonesian forms of 
pentjah-sxlal untouched by Menangkabau styles. The latter, as progies- 
sivcly developed esttensions of the early and c rude niat Mrlayu, provide 
the mechanical bases for pmtjak-silat throughout the archipelago. 

Men&ngkabau ptntjok^sitai ts clothed in mystic values. The nature of 
such belief iti the supernatural is dependent upon ius- religious base; 
most Commonly s the Muslim failh, All Mrnangkabau forms appeal to a 
magic quality called balhin (spirit), which is invoked to protect one's 
self and to dnud the enemy so that he may be readily defeated, 

It should be understood that Sumatran pttttjtik-ulat can and does 
employ all the standard weapons. Each specific gengraphical area has 
its own local and special weapons, but by and Large it is the Menang- 
kabau local weaponry that is applied by alt pentjak-ftiat farms in 


92. Tager-nylr ticlici of Harimau. Jifariti ufe; from stalking (a) to aicack (e) 

Most typically Mcnangkabau perhaps is, mamimac sitat. The name 
means "tiger,” The style is sometimes also called siiai kuching (eat), but 
the tiger connotation is more popular. This unusual style centers in the 
Pain an area, He who sees it for the first lime will no doubt marvel at 
the curious antics ol" the combatants, who prefer to occupy recumbent 
and semirecumbent positions on the ground in imitation of a tiger’s 
stalking actions preparatory to jumping its prey [Fig. 92a-c). The 
style is said to have developed out of the necessity for combat on wet 
and highly slippery surfaces where upright stances are impractical ^ also 
to offset the eventuality of falling down on the ground from upright 
combat, there to be helpless and in danger of losing one’s life. 


In executing the ground tactics the harimau lighters find their legs 
all important. Postures, movement, attack and defense latuics, at! de- 
pend on Strong, flexible legs, kasumau exponents arc possessed of ex¬ 
ceptionally developed legs, made so by their daily climbing of moun¬ 
tains and sitting in full-squat positions. 

The 11 ar]mau exponent reasons that an enemy standing has but two 
foundations—his feel. On slippery earth they are inadequate, The 
ha him.mi exponent, on the ground, tigerlike, has five foundations—his 
two feel, two hands, and his back, which arc completely reliable under 
such adverse conditions as wet and slippery earth. His stability li thus 
supreme while that of his enemy precarious. 

The style is deceptive and many an upright attacker is surprised by 
the quick defeat rendered by his "tiger" foe. The ground-hugging 
harimal' fighter is evasive, clever, and not the "sitting duck' 1 he ap¬ 
pears to be. The speed and power of his legs and feet can demolish an 
ordinary upright defense But jiarimau exponents are not completely 
without skills in an upright posture. However, given the chancc T they 
will voluntarily drop to the ground to continur the fight from there, By 
their use of sickle, hooking, reaping, and kicking actions of their feet and 
legs, they can repel the enemy, Caught sitting naturally Irom the rear 
by a sneak attack, the HAftnUAir expert can by his legs alone defend 
himself Most of the use of the hands is for short actions of a block*and- 
parry nature, or to provide support points for lhe body, 

Stehlak siiat is a system, the name of which implies “to attack with 
strength." The entire basis of this powerful fighting form is contained 
in the expression: Sakalipait gadjah mmlinbmg, garijah mbah. This means 
"An elephant in the way, it is knocked down. 11 The snc-ftt-AX ex¬ 
ponent is taught to imitate the fury ufa herd of stampeding elephants, 
Combining that with the wariness of the stalking tiger. The system ap¬ 
pears to have Chinese antecedents of the Asinjg-i variety, and was de¬ 
veloped as a countermeasure to the dangerous uaRIixau style. Trainees 
are concerned with applying the whole body force behind the fist, lout,, 
or head in making their attacks. Tradition tells of sterlak experts who 
have fought and defeated tigers in the Sumatran jungles, The system's 
best exponents are to be seen in the coastal area of west-central Sumatra 
between Padang and Bcngkuiu. 

Sasdang lilaif or “hands style," is an old system developed as an 
answer to the dynamic fiTRRi.AK, lilai. Its present teachings arc secret 
and it is rarely exhibited. The system depends on evasionary measures 
which seek not to oppose the futy of the sterlak lighter, but to mis¬ 
direct him (Fig. 93). 

The Fadang area in Mcnangkabau country contains the hotbed of 
pentjak-sifat styles- pacjh aUU is one of its typical forms. Characteristics 
of this style include a pattern of stepping movements in advancing, re¬ 
treating, or turning, which follows an imaginary square figure on the 
ground (Fig. 94): Readiness for combat is signified by thigh-slapping. 




Upon actual engagement ike free hand is usually held to protect the 
groin, Allin all thr form appears to have considerable Hindu-grappling 
influence, The locked ilnjinb is used a* a striking surfacr* with great 
shuck effect, into chosen target areas (Fig, 95}. Vital points along the 
enemy’s renter line arc the major areas of assault (Fig. 136). Those arras 
are measured by using ihe spun distance bclwf’rn the outstrrtrhed 
thumb and forefinger as a guide. Beginning at a point between the eyes* 
the hand with outstretched thumb and forefinger is ^walked" down ike 
center line of the body. Where either thumb or forefinger touch are 
vital points. 

The TjAMt'C-R silat of the Fadang Area is as functional as it is insidious. 
Its name implies '"combined" to indicate clearly that it is a synthesis 
form. By borrowing liberally from both Chinese kvnta# and p*Titjak+$iiat of 
many types, it is perhaps the only tlhinrse-drveloped fKaij&&-siiat form 
in Indonesia that has attained an important status. 

Tjampur's underlying precept is aggressiveness based on premedi¬ 
tated assault. As Such it depends entirely on surprise tactics made at 
dose range against an unsuspecting victim. Unsavory as this may In: to 
the more sporting minded* tjampur exponents are tuned entirely to¬ 
ward tin: defeat of the enemy; to offer him any concessions or advantage 
is to them purely hypocritical humbug. 

It is largely a one-victim system, TjArtPlJit permits only One step to 
be taken backward during engagement with an enemy. Therefore* being 
a direct power system, it contains little evasionary action., Guan 1 jai„ a 
Padang area old-timer and rxprrt of the tjampuh system, in an inter¬ 
view, told of correct use of arms and feet which make the system 

Tjamfuh, lilat considers a very limited number of vital points on 
the enemy’s body. The centerline targets, from top of the head to 
the groin, are adequate. Four hard points of the operator's body 
are the primary weapons by which to block and strike: the two 
elbows and the two knees, If the enemy is strong and feared, he 
must be attacked under the pretense of friendly approach and 
when he is completely offguard. There must, be no warning such 
as preparatory cocking of the arm nr hand far striking. Fur ex¬ 
ample, it would be good rjAMPUK technique in show an enemy a 
book and while he was accepting it or examining it, to strike into 
his eyes, or to knee or kick him in the groin. 

Posture and movement permit the operator great freedom In which 
TJampur is to be applied, Yei, there appears to be some tendency to 
begin by a low-level posture which uncoils like a spring as the attack is 
made. Attacks ate decided upon by prrfighi concentration TO unify both 
spirit and mitid. The application of full energies ''menial and physical] 
to the target at hand is required. Once the TJAMPvr expert's mind is 


made up, it is believed by him that there is no defense to his attack. 
Ever, a highly developed eye reflex in the enemy will bn uf no avail; 
good rfAMPUR technique cannot be seem So strong is tjanpur tech¬ 
nique that there is no partner sparring practice possible. All that may 
bn practiced is a slowmuticm type of action. 

To turn back or to take more than one step backward while in com¬ 
bat is considered weakness by TjAMPUR experts. Aside from the one step 
permitted;, the expert is always advancing- The slide-step is used as 
terrain permits. Profile stances are favored because the frontal stance is 
seen to expose the maximum target area to an enemy. The hands may 
deliver multiple strikes by use of ricochet technique—one strike re¬ 
bounded off its target directly into another target. There are no back¬ 
hand actions considered or used by tjamfur exponents. Frequently 
both hands may be used in open fashion to push-press against the hips 
or back of the enemy to nullify his movement. Hands thrusting ut press¬ 
ing against the midseciion of the enemy to ofT-balahcc him may also br 
augmented by shoving with the bead. Kicking is never directed higher 
than the enemy's groin ; to do otherwise, the 'tj am pent exponent believes, 
is to expose one’s self to possible counterattack. 

Because the system is so market! ly aggressive and so dangerous, train¬ 
ers arc permitted tjampvr study only after they have completed years 
of training in various other Menattgkabau styles, This experience serves 
them well. By such technical knowledge and ability, they arc able to 
make tjamplr precombat evaluations of their chosen enemy and to 
attack him at his weakest points* TjampuR applicants are subject to =• 
severe screening process and final acceptance by the master teacher. 
Good character is a prime requisite for acceptance, 

Baku rilat is abo a Padang-arca fighting art. A synthesis, it takes its 
technical base from STERLAX tactics but places heavy reliance upon 
newer foreign ideas, such as found in Japanese karate-do wid j&juisu. The 
name suggests that this is so; it implies “new place/ 1 Sard sitat is a pop¬ 
ular form among young mm. It is a light evasive system with emphasis 
on hand actions to block, parry, and cover while maneuvering for a 
climax action. Defensive by nature, the BAKU exponent will prefer to 
await an attack and then go into action (Fig. 97}, This mode of defense 
requires speedy reilrxrs and the bari 1 expert demonstrates sudi assets 
by being able to block or parry a frontal snap-kick before it can reach 
its intended target. 

Catching and seizure arc important tactics of the baru system, Often 
the enemy's arm is seized and struck with brutal force in a reverse action 
against ihr elbow. Catching or sei/.ure leads to throwing techniques., 
usually preceded by trips or hooking actions made with the legs, as in 
the photograph. 

Par aim an sitat adheres more to the Menangkabau reliance upon font 
tactics than do some of the other forms today. Kicking actions in this 
style n( pentjak-siiat are always in two phases. The first of these is a 


Ef?. Bam dpfrnir; fotix:Linj( r 

ftnkinR, and idling {lap to ftotlam). 


demonstrative or Lure-type kick made to deceive [Lie enemy The second 
kick by the same It'S is intended to injure or kill- Far. aim as silal is one 
of the lesser varieties of fighting that do not liave great popularity, 
similar is the "three steps," or LAWOKA-TfOA silat style. As its name sug¬ 
gests, this form Lises ihree-sLep fundamental positioning patterns. Most 
Likely it stems from a kunlaa base. The PAGALOMPAMS fclJA-flUl, or 
"twelve rolling waves," silai attempts to copy the continuous action of 
waves. Twelve basic elements make up its repertoire. Torpedo lifol is 
an interesting modern form which lives up (0 its name. Am arks are 
straight-line delivered and with the forceful ness of an explosion on 

finkittinggi (Fordekok) is a mountainous area in the cultural heart of 
the Mcnangkabau area- It houses some original pm/jrf-stfof forms whirh 
typify Sumatran fighting, Ku mango jito/oftbe bukiitinggi-Batusangkar 
area is wdl known. It is composed or characteristically Menangkabati 
footwork which puts the operator close In oil the enemy so that seizure 
can be followed by striking and/or throwing attacks. Soft, flexible 
action typifies the humangO tactics. An expert can escape from almost 
any imposed situation of holds, joint-locks, or choking attacks. He uses 
an evasive "giving in/' but immediately redirects the situation to his 
advantage. Amidst this softness, hardness of action appears. There is 
much here to strongly suggest a combination of the riff r^eftir ft "cia/T silkiness 
and flow with the abrupt and choppy Hnkkicn short-arm tactics. Both 
of these tuiTtatf forms may have influenced kumanoo. But there is also a 
definite Hindu influence. Similar to the pre-engagement actions of the 
RAUH syslrm, herein HUMANGO will be found the thigh-slLapping and USC 
of the free hand to protect (he groin (Fig- 98). 

There is some use of side-facing stances, Occasionally, on turning his 
back in the enemy, the ku mango exponent will cover his neck with one 
hand to avoid rear-choking attacks, Blocking and parrying is directed 
against the outside of the enemy's arms to turn him against his free ami 
and limit its counterattack ufiage. The HUMAN GO operator will use his 
elbow to block the knee or foot of the enemy’s kicking leg. Generally the 
leg and fist of the kumango expert work together- while the foot or leg 
is hooking or tripping the enemy's Leg, the fist is moving into iu target, 
The vital areas of the enemy most favored as targets by the m lrAa NisO 
operator are the renter-line pnints cif the throat, solar plexus, and groin, 
The 1 'high-low' 1 response is usrd in connection with counterattacks If 
the rnemy attacks high — to the Kit mango exponent’s lace- lie will kick, 
and vice-versa, This tactic has also been adopted by tjampur rital. The 
forward Step of the KU MANGO exponent may lie deceptive. At times he 
will appear to place the foot, only to swing a powerful kirk (Fig. 99) 
before the actual weighting of that loot takes place. Catching and lever¬ 
ing by throwing actions against the enemy's arm arc applied frequently, 
and such tactics have no pity for the manner of the enemy's fall, which 
in itself can be disabling. 


Limtau iilet is allied to KUhArtao and is original to the Bukiuisiggi- 
PajakumbuJi areas (Fig, 100). A system which speciatines in joini-lock- 
inq technique is called sawi liiat (Fag. 101). It too has its iethnical 
roots ir KUHANQO and i_r-iJTAU. The putimakdi si/at, or "'princess bath* 
Jog/' style of the BukitEinggi region, like the Sawi style, counters lioih 
steruk and lintau styles (Fig. 102). It is particularly well known for 
the excellence of its stall- (fojtai) fighting skills. Thigh-slapping afkd 
foot-stamping actions in this system may suggest Hindu influence. 
The On nt 'kayam siial system is a must umiSua.1 lighting form. The 
actions of (he lien 'the menu mg of the name of the system) are copied 
for its mechanical base. Fool actions arc used only lor displacement 
and, like the hen, are short and choppy. Hand actions are the strung 
points of this lighting form. They are used defensively somewhat like 
tiie scratching of a hen scare is ing the ground for food;. The system comeg 
from I he Murrain bull area. 


LOO 1 . A ^fniimsiiiiLsu'ii of Uniau liial (4 viowi} 




3 0 E r A domonstral ion of 5awE silai (4 



■ i* 





The mountainous Fagarujuug region near Buluttinggi has devdopd 
the fatai sitat style, Formed about the turn of the twentieth century by 
an unknown founder, today the style is headed by a Muslim, Mu nap 
Malin Mudo. The emblem of the system is represented on a. flag. A 
caribou kab$u\ head fills the central portion, underneath which are 
positioned two crossed km. 

The costume for this fighting art consists of a short jacket, trousers, 
and sash The trousers are unusual, as they arc cut to he quite baggy, 
with a deep crotch; they permit great freedom of movement. The 
trousers also serve another purpose: Preparatory to dose engagement 
with the foe, and even sometimes immediately before delivering an 
actual attack (Fig. 103a], the PATAt exponent slaps together with open 
palms the baggy portion of the crotch cloth which Lies under Ills thigh- 
The result is a loud popping sound which is quite startling. 

Patat tactics make judicious use of arm and hand actions to parry the 
enemy's attacks: generally the open hand is used. It may be directed 
against an arm or even a kicking attack. The latter is made possible- hy 
the fact that the MTaJ exponent usually operates from a low crouching 
posture ib). Clever use of the feet permits them to block attacking arms 
(c); they can he used with amazing accuracy and rapidity. The fatai 
expert cross-steps a lot,. turning in this manner to pivot for evasion or 
counterattack. This action is a bit reminiscent of the M’rtDAkl siiai style 
of the Celebes, and perhaps there is Mine connection. 38 The momentum 
created by an enemy's hand-parrying action against a tatai exponent's 
leg id! will quickly hr utilized to give Jbrc':e to the cr055-Step turn. 
Patat experts are often successful in catching (he enemy's arm or arms. 
They will then ^open" the enemy's posture by a hard jerk forward, 
preliminary to a straight-line kick and burling the victim in the ground 
{ft, F), Groundwork dors exist, but it is not considered a speciality of 
the system. 

Added tu the standard weaponry of pentjak-siiat and the local 
Menangkahau weapons, which are all utilized by the PATjy system, is 
the use of their special weapon, the gantnr. It is a short wooden instru¬ 
ment used to sound the village drum; but as a club (Fig. 104}, it is a 
powerful and dangerous weapon in the hands of an expert, 

I he Mmangkiibau skill in pentjak-sitat is not exclusively thr province 
of men. Women, ton, may be found who are highly proficient and fear¬ 
some fighters. Often mulches between man and woman are staged. 

The Muslim-directed Organization IPS I (iec p. 52) is active in 
Medan. Tberr under die leadership of Sjech Bar injin, Harum Said,, and 
Rasul, it has progressed along modern lines dial remain to be lurthrr 
tested- IPS! in Medan is attempting to Conduct a sporting outlet for 

jtfv The Hugis were siik-piiluriii* wlm, in ihc sevemfcetuh unit hi Hindi rmlmii";. 
often Li m ilc part in lecal wan uh die Sumairan coiiii. They may be reiputuitili* ft>t 
[oiUfjhndnf! i hit ucLic in ihe Celebes, 




shiy traditionally only combative art, There is substantial inertia and 
resistance to the move cue nt with in IFSI in java. 

I he Medan group lias advanced the fallowing suggested rules; 

1) attacks must be limited to points between ihr shoulders and die 
belt. Contact here is awarded one point. 

2) to strike the face or below the belt is a penalty, 

3) to throw the opponent Is not a completed action; no point 
award. Ground follow-up is permitted, 

4) securing a joint-lock is awarded ten points. 

5} Securing an immobilization by holding the opponent helpless is 
worth live points. 

Matches arc limited to three engagements (rounds) of three minutes 
each; two-minute rest periods intervene between engagements. Con¬ 
testants are divided on the basis of classes by age [3-year intervals), 
weight [5’kg, intervals), and height (Ift-em, intervals). The matches 
must be supervised by matter leathers. 

■ Atjvh 

The Atjeh revere the blade. Their special weapon is the rentjong { Fig. 
105). Its peculiar shape seems to fit well with the air uf magic and mys¬ 
tery connected to it. Each blade lias distinct markings, usually Arabic 
characters which tell of mystic powers. The rentjong is employed accord' 
mg to its length, which varies from about five to twenty inches. The 
shorter lengths are highly favored because they can easily be mnrealed. 
The rtntjmg is worn sheathed at the leit-hand side of the bearer. It is 
usually drawn with the left foot forward so that by a quick short step 
forward with the righi foot, the thrust of the knife receives added im- 
peiiLs. Thr bindr is withdrawn from its sheath cutting edge toward the 
enemy. It is then whipped tu the right by a snap of the hand which 
brings the palm upward; ihr elbow is held fairly dose to the body. The 
thrust is made by extending the right anti almas! io full extension and 
turning the palm downward just prior io penetration of the target. Vital 
areas include the abdominal cavity, the groin, the throat, and the kid¬ 
ney regions. 

I he Atjeh can strike eithci from rear or side positions, or from 
Iron tally positioned and mutually accepted dial Ecu ge posh ions, What¬ 
ever engagement he elects, he is nut strictly limited in tactics, to the 
thrust type. Slashing by circular amid elliptical patterns exists, 

Other Atjeh weapons [Fig. IQS) include the somewhat longer gadu- 
bang, the ptvdttt&ig and turn pedang, which arc similar swords designed 
tu be operated by one hand. Elbtdc lengths fur these weapons range be¬ 
tween fifteen to thiriy inches. Swordlike, yet retaining many of the char¬ 
acteristics of the typical Indonesian parang, arc (he kfkwang, the tapak 


L05. Hie Atjeh TtnijMng and sheath!. 

kodak t the t/uniis, and the tikim gain, These long blades, too, are single- 
edged, averaging about twenty inches in length. Shorter knives, such 
as the kans, the piim tngkal, and (lie htziusan, exhibit Uiidr lengths I rum 
four to nine inches and complete the list olloral Atjeh blades, Distinct 
Moorish design is seen in the karii and the perisai (shields). Atjeh ktis 
may have straight or undulate blades, such as seen it) Lite ktis balsagko. 
The value ol the ktis, white high,, dors not replace the r tnijong as I he 
favorite Atjeh weapon. 

Substantially, all Atjeh pmljak-siht forms arc baaed on Mclayu char- 
act eristics, as well a?those of the Meilungka.bau. The use of arm seizures 
—catching—points out the former influence. By employment of <ifpak 
and \tmpok. Atjeii pCRtjak-iihii show their depend: nee upon Mcnang- 
kahau forms. The Atjeh biuivt: actually managed a synthesis which 
typifies their aggressively active personality Where** the srfd-if Mctayu 
fighter will drop into dtpok ur sanpok tu evade au attack, then deliver a 
kick front ihr ground, and the Yfenangkabau will do similarly nr stand 
up to deliver his kick and then drop hack down into the ground-sitting 
posture, tiie Atjeh comes out of the ground-si Ming posture, kicks, and 
stays on his feet. 

Atjeh pentjaksit&t is locally administered from Kuta-raja, the princi¬ 
pal city, where it is under die wing of IF8l r the MusliimclkccEcd organ. 
It is in liaison with the Medan branch, located just at the southeastern 
boundary of Atjeh country and the northernmost Barak region. 


CAE,A A™ 5F [EAT! I 

i fH-i ,'\r)c{tiion»L Aijch veeiporti (*ee also following [jap 1 . 



KHI* fk-U.J.S^kO 


■ Riouw Archipelago 

Tlic Riouw Art hi pc lag a lias been pointed out as an immensely signifi¬ 
cant area to t!it development of Indonesian fighting arts. It merely 
suffices to say here that silai Mdayu originated there and that its in¬ 
fluences have permeated almost the whole of Indonesian pfnijak-nlal 
Technical ideas transferred to the Pa Irmbang-based Srivijaya Empire 
may be witnessed today in local Palcmbang area pnijak-siUit forms, In 
the ETE.-SSi niat the hand-aod-ann caLch or seizure tactics can be identified 
with riiat Mriayu. Such catches against the arm of the enemy are made 
welt above rbe wrist. The staff (toya) technique in the Badolingau area 
near E J alemibang is one of the best in Indonesia. It employs a seven-loot 
wiiodf'Pt staff and depends on manipulation with very little sliding of 
the hands, a strong characteristic of Ufa f Mclaym Prjstures {.tIon'i for 
combat use the typically stint Meiayu widc-lbming placement so useful 
in wet or muddy areas. Additionally, the lead foot is always turned 
slightly inward to avoid exposing die knee joint to a direct frontal kick¬ 
ing attack. Spear tactics stemming from Riouw characteristically begin 
with (he spearhead point mg downward, 

■ Bntak 

The Batak possesses a low-threshold spirit for war. Hr is almost ir- 
siantly precipitated into combative action by the smallest provocation, 
Marsdcn i His ton of Sumatra; reports that “Their life appears, in fact, to 
be a perpetual state of hostilky, and they are always prepared for attack 
and defense/ 1 

The Batik fortify their kampong with ramparts of piled and packed 
earth, liberally planted with brushwood. Outside of this structure h a 
ditch, ei-n each side of which is growing a palisade of timber. Beyond 
that is still another ring of prickly bamboo, the puncture wounds from 
which lake extended periods to heal, an impenetrable vegetation ihat 
hides the actual settlement. Ranjcu^ the bamboo sticks sharpened on 
both ends, arc copiously planted all over the outer arras; bulb body 
Tartjtiu : Fig. 107) and foot rwjm are used, making even a stealthy ap¬ 
proach trry dangerous except to those who know lllr pattern. At the 
corners of their fortified settlement watch.towers guard the inhabitants 
twenty-four hours a day; these are usually tall (rces in which scouts are 
ported to keep keen scrutiny over the outer approaches. If attacked, the 
Ealak can launch devastating fire by musket, blowpipe, arrows, and 
spears front these watch towers. 

But the liatak prelerS not to fight defensively, rsfK-ci.dly around nr 
from his own kampnng. He will erect fortified areas removed from his 
village, luting these as bases from which to launch a campaign against 
his enemy. 

Balak weapons include spears made of bamboo with hre-hardened 


points or hardwood shafb with metal spearheads. A side wrapan calk'd 
ajunn (Fig, 108; is carried religiously. Use of the bow and arrow is first 
recorded in. Chinese records [ Ying-ym Shfng-ian) and it tnay be, together 
with tlie spear, their most ancient weapon. The small throwing hatchet 
called the kapak sometimes kapa} {Fig. 109) is a metal instrument and a 
favorite among tin; Batak. Carried inconspicuously in back, high up an 
(lirir Ltat:k-nrj:k regions or nssidr the forearm hidden by sleeve^ this, 
hatchet car be instantly gripped and thrown with remarkable accuracy. 
The Batak skill with this terrifying weapon rivals, that of any other 
people with project] Ee weapons of a like mi tore. A Batak can pin an. 
enemy's lout to the ground at a distance of fifteen feet or if he chooses, 
pin him to a tree or wall through Elis arm or hand. Sumptt [nitttprttifi ), as 
the blowpipes are known, 37 are also used ill warfare, but more generaIJy 
for hunting, Some use of the cktmeh, or "whip," is reported, fianjau are 
carried and used not only in their primary manner hut also as hand 
weapons, .The connection between this custom and the Philippine 
tabak as well as that of the Haruku hi a rid [Moluccas] sharpened sticks 
is not clear.) 

37, Special k-n K itia biimbofi whh joints five fwi a.p*rl are prelimed far [lie tubular 
par iLiiij oF i his vna pon , 


bnlak warriors (rain daily lor coin bat. Their kantpong makes use of 
a special building called a balri, whirli includes an area fur fighting-art 
practice atone end; however, much of their training lakes place outside 
on natural terrain, Marsden in his History Sumatra reported that 
** . „ . ror do (hey ever engage hand-to-hand/' but the Batak can and 
do, though perhaps not from preference. Though there is no grappling 
or boxing form indigenous to Batak culture, among their martial forms 
is a method of combat which may have a Hindu basr.®* Knife in (he 
right hand, two combatants are encased in one sarong, Roth fighters 
are usually mortally wounded and the winner is the one who dies last. 
Additionally, though it is not popularly practiced today, Batak warriors 
may employ the methods of mf.NaKiSKabau itiut, since they are a moun¬ 
tain people having extremely Strong legs, an asset in the MENANGKABAtJ 
siiai System. 

Raiding parties of old were more of a defensive or counteractivr 
nature. The enemy kampottg was besieged and defied by firing musket 
balls into it by a process known as '"carrying smoke to the enemy." The 
enemy was thru allowed three days during which to confer about terms 
being demanded. If the terms -were refused or no reply was made at the 
end of three days, the Batak attacked Furiously after declaring war. But 
before entering actual combat, they killed a buffalo or fowl white was 
the preferred color) s and by observing the spasmatic motion nf the 
intestines as life Doled nut ol the animal, they judged the fortune of the 
battle yet to come. The priest who oversaw this event was rewarded 
with death if he misjudged the reading of the intestinal movement. 

Wars lasLed for years, but seldom was an Open engagement employed. 
The mutual Joss of a dozen mrn could stop ah proceedings. Even a 
market-time season could see all hostilities brought to a halt, and Batak 
attending such commercial events plugged the muzzles of their firearms 
with a piece nJ'green liough to signify peaceful intentions. 

Once in battle, the Batak fought furiously. Their standard was a 
horse’s tail or Stead with a long mane; colored streamer* of red and 
white decorated the standard. They marched in single file and beat 
gongs and made loud shouting noises as they approached for deploy¬ 
ment The siege was made out of musket-fire range., and they relied more 
upon Sniping action and ambush of enemy stragglers to force their 
demands. H overwhdtutt) in the siege, they retreated, but not before 
sowing ranjuit to cover their movement back to their kampang. Sieges 
saw them subsisting on very little food, sometimes only one potato a day. 

While they design and manufacture their own swurds, they curiously 
arc dependent upon the Menangkabau for firearms. They are expert 
marksmen, even though many of the firearms are matchlock guns. 

U$. Ancient Hindu h^hiin^ arii i i ic IU4 h'd a mrihud by which iwn winitin wrre lied, 
left hands tiygcihrr; kniv« hetd in ihnr Hghthuidi wen used m i sliifatmiff mill '•IniJiic.i 1 ; 
acikicn it? eotablkli victory, 


I 10 1 h* 1 fSalP-t r«fj and thcath. 

Batak warriors make their own ammunition for these guns, Gunpowder 
is compounded from the manure composts nor the kampong, They carry 
machines, curiously carved, for molding bullets and still others for dis¬ 
pensing powder. In battle, tliey carry carl ridge boxes, made with n 
number or compartment, rach containing an individual charge; the 
matches are also carried within the boxes; hanging from their right side 
are the flintand steel More modern firearms are not generally preferred, 
for tlic problem of finding am mum l ion for these newer pieces is almost 


The Batnk knifr-lighter has hisown peculiar style. His special weapon 
is tile retut [Fig. 110), a shorl-Maded knife with a pistol grip not unlike 
the Bugis tadik. When prosoked the Bata Is will bare his right arm should 
it be encumbered with garments; if unclad, he will symbolically make 
this gesture as a signal, after which lie will attack. He employs his 
bladrd weapon in the following manner: When positioned within cflrc- 
live striking distance with Ids unsheathed knile, he will loosely hold the 
handle in what sometimes approximates a pinch grip. To strike into the 
target, usually Ins enemy's midsertion, he uicS the Edade in a hacking 
fashion ' downward or upward'! and as it bites deeply into flesh, he com¬ 
pletely relaxes his handhold and thrusts- tin: blade even deeper by a 
c^uick motion of his palm on the end of the handle. The knife, driven by 
such an impetus, penetrates to a lethal depth making further strikes 
unnecessary. Beyond this peculiarity, Batak knife- fighting tactics exhibit 
no special characteristics. 

■ Thu Colettes 

The GcLaics were the indigenes of the siraits between Malaya and 
Sumatra. They infiltrated the Riotiw and Lingga archipelagos, as well 
as Batam Island, As a nomadic group who specialized in piracy, the 
Cclatcs were masters of guerrilla warfare,, as carried out on the high 

150 WEAPONS Asti FI Gift INC \RT$ 

sffls, They are known to have employed a I mo^l all the stand ard wra- 
pom f such jis the saiigi t nr '"spear,'* 5 * made of ttibonti wood, ih-c bow and 
arrow, the Arif, the parang t and even the stick or club. Some accounts 
speak uf the 'bmcagrr arsenal” employed by the Cctales, mainly com* 
posed of spears and guns and cannon of native manufacture,* 11 But By 
this “meaner arsenal,* 1 the Cetanes proved the then, already time-tested 
adage that it is the man behind the weapon or system iliac is most im¬ 
portant in combat.. 

The blowpipe perhaps made ille Cetates illc most feared pirates in 
Indonesian waters. Using this weapon, they carried out their earliest 
raids; in more modern times, the blowpipe seems to have fallen liliu- 
disuse. The Cclatcs always used poison darts in their blowpipes, 

Gudin ho d’Eredia reporting in IB13 wrote of the “Saletes," that 
"These (ishermen employed pointed darts called [Portuguese 

word for lire Malay ralitfi] with which they transiised the fish swimming 
at lhe bottom of the sea. . , Here d’Eredia has confused the spear 
with the missiles of the blowpipe, Ibr there has never been a blowpipe 
missile that could lie used efficiently for killing iish ,l at the bottom of 
the sea,’* but he no doubt oliserved the blowpipe as a weapon ol the 

The use of the blowpipe and its poisonous missiles is recorded by 
Barrels {Da Am) {1511} in the battle for Malacca. lit 1 notes that some 
of the Portuguese defenders fdl wounded, some fatally, to the effect of 
this insidious weapon: 

The Malays say chat the invention nf this poison was made hy 
cbe inhabitants of Sumatra and is compounded with the bone nfa 
fish which in this kingdom we call bagre, and the Malays charged 
with this manufacture were the Celtatcs falk who live on the sea, 

II must be noted that Harms does not insist that the Cclatcs used the 
blowpipe against the Portuguese, but only that they supplied the ipvh, 
or "poison ." 1 David Sopher in his Stu Nomadj infers that the substance 
may have been produced from Antiani roxicarta, a process well known to 
the forest peoples of the Malay Peninsula. Perhaps, according to Sopher, 
the delates obtained the knowledge of poison from their nii*ttig with 
peninsular natives, or may have even gotten (hr idea of the blowpipe 
from this source. 

Tome Pi res in bis Sansd Orrrntat calls the Cclatcs those 

39. A Malay mini fiw [he bamfcn» or olhr-r wooden spear confining of a fhafl 
sharpen ini lu a jjihfU. Nr> metal spearhead is use£f tm Lliri wi'a|xm. 

4U. "Piracy anrl Slave IViide. ei< i Jauraiit «t (fo* Indian Atfkiprtsp, Id-Vl 51 !• 

3t. "Kr+'cha'i Defeupncrtl of Midiirii, Meridional India and CJaLlLay" 1 <;iranslaLed 
liom Purl Lillies*.' and annotated by J. V. .Mills, JpUtntll >>/ the FSiafii Jrtrfl Bnrht'tl qf ihr 
/toytil .torffw .ftviriv, It | April. 193t}|). 


, . , who arc corsairs in siBiU, light craft, mm who go out piiLad¬ 
ing in. their boats, and fish, and are sometimes on land and some- 
limes on sea, of whom there are a large number now in our lime. 
(They carry blowpipes, with small arrows of hi ark lie! lei Hire, 
which, as they touch blood, kill, as they often did to o«r Portu¬ 
guese in the enterprise and destruction of the famous city of 
Malacca, which is very famous among thr nations.) 

Be alt as it may, thr blowpipe was positively a weapon of the Cel ales- 
The pnisoii used oil its missiles was made from the fish known as the 
ifan pan, the stingray (eagle ray) common to waters of ihe straits. The 
caudal spine of this cay has served as a spearhead for forest peoples on 
the Malay Peninsula, but also was ground and mixed with the Anti- 
mis toxkana to become an ip<?h for poison arrows and blowpipe missilrs, 
As fishermen of great skill, Sopher suggests that the delates were re- 
sponsible for obtaining the spines of ray$, a most dangerous occupation. 

■ Montawal Islands and Ninn 

Paralleling the western coast of Sumatra tics a chain of islands from 
Ungaro, the southernmost, to Polo Kabi, the northernmost. These is¬ 
lands support various tribes, not necessarily friendly toward one an¬ 
other. Occasional warfare between the more aggressive tribes From the 
southern islands atid the more docile northern islanders takes place, 
even today. 

Engano nalives are hostile to all who encroach upon their society. 
Seven-foot spears are their favorite weapon (Fig, 111), Made of tubpng 
wood, these weapons are tipped with sharp bamboo points, fire hard¬ 
ened, and I heir concave sides are filled with imbedded shark’s teeth or 
fish bones which have been pointed. Some use is made of iron and cop¬ 
per for spearheads. The Engano natives lurk behind coral reels in war 
carpet ready to pounce upon stragglers who VCtature text close. 

On the southernmost island of the Pulo Pagi group lives a group of 
restless people who occasionally make war with their island neighbors 
to the north. Their arms consist chiefly of hardwood spears and bow and 
arrows. The bow es fashioned from nihotig wood and is usually less than 
four feet in lengthj arrows are made from proportionately shorter 
lengths of straight bamboo, tipped with brass points, but more often 
with hardwood shaped to a point. The bowstring is made from the 
entrails of animals. These people sometimes carry a km of typical 
Sumatran design, Their war canoes are huge affairs, sixty or seventy 
feet long. Some of the natives carry the parang (Fig. 112}, the chopper 
knife so common throughout Indonesia. 

but it is oil Nias Island, the largest of the chain, that weapons and 
fighting arts are most highly developed. The island, some one hundred 
and fifty miles long and sixty miles wide, is remote and houses this 


ItS. 1 lir Ruin Rag] parang, 

IJ L. Engano scvcn-luol speai i. 

primitive culture. The people are immediately connected with original! 
racial siods from the interior of Sumatra- Their religion is a mixture oF 
animism, ancestor worship, and phallicLsm, 

Slain enemy heads adorn i|ir huis- cil the chiefs. The island is divided 
into atunit fifty districts, each with a raja ruling with arbitrary Authority, 
Thc districts are more or less independent Iron one another and at 
times exhibit varinners which Lead to Combative showdowns, i’hf 
object of all the wars appears to he the taking of prisoners, who are sold 
as slaves For a great profit. Such activities have been encouraged over 
the years by the traders,, such as those tmm Atjeh. t J.ivid Supbcr reports 
in hi 5 Sea tfomtuk: 

On Simeuliic and Siberia, and particularly Nias, off the west 
coas t of Sumatra, slaveraiding by Achinese seamen was common 
in the 103O f s and visits from far-ranging pirates from Borneo and 
the Sltlu area were no dmibl known and dreaded; the places 
where they put in along the coast would be recognized and 
avoided, being rrfrrred lo thereafter by such names as batman 
bajau, 'Pirates Landing' fori Simculiie and hiberut|, and Siba- 
jau, “Pirate Place" [an islet near Si hern l]. 


.1 l.i Nias island siHliis. 

t 14. Till* N\ii* bland parang. 

I tS, A Nias island warrior before comhal. 

3 lb. The Niai warriors' tuio-lulo war dance. 


Nias warriors .ire sturdy men, and [heir fitness i.s in many 

w,iys aside from combat ivr encounter. Prior to marriage, for instance, 
they must Facr a severe test of Strength- A solid stone column approxi¬ 
mately seven feeL high and two fret wide is tlic index of their physical 
fitness. Nearby, a smaller stone about twenty inches high rests solidly 
implanted in the soil- The warrior to lie tested runs hchtip twenty-five 
yards, hops upon the small stone and from there without breaking his 
me i merit Li m Launches himself iiiio the air to hurtle over the column. Tu 
do so requires extremely acrobatic gyrations., for the only safe landing 
is on une's feet, facing the column. Those who miss risk severe injury or 
even death. 

Characteristic of the Nias warrior is tlir adat-alaj pakgiw prtufjtirU, or 
"warrior’s coituiyie." U-athrr "armor” jackets of various styles are 
donned by ihr warrior. The iombuh \ spear is their chief weapoLi. A 
sevm-foot Length appears Id be most popular. Points are either of melal 
or hardwood shaped in straight-blade fashion (Fig, 113:, The point of 
the spear is held pninLing downward just before combat 'Fig. 115). 
The ktUwang is .1 sword which h,a:s been perhaps modeled alter European 
captured?) models, such as used by the early European traders, They 
are mure sabrripke ibe Uiual Indonesian types, The ftilMtiil 'Fig. 
114) is also carried ami used. The Nias warrior makes rx.icii.sivf: use of 
the hand shield, .1 simply decorated and, elongated design which can 
a Ism be used as a battering ram at close quarters. 

To promote martial ardor the Nias Warrior engages in die iuto-tido, a 
war dance composed of much circular dancing and shouting (Fig I Ifi), 
The affair may hist long enough to ensure that each warrior is ready for 
combat, but more often llian not it is a sytiibcilh gesture done quickly 
as if all were impatient lo gel into battle, 

M Kuntiio 

Sumatra has long been remit mucajEy affluent an Indonesian history. 
With a rich source of excellent raw male rials and blessed with first- 
class port facilities, Sumatra has always been a merchant's paradise 
The f ILiinrsc have occupied tLie coaslal cities, as well as some interior 
posts, and they have brought, along with their other traditions, famlm. 
Kuta-iaja m the north, Medan in (lie northeast,. Jam hi and Palcmbang 
in ibr e.'ist-central, and Pidang in B1 1 c wcst-centfld portions ul line 
island, all. have large Chin esc communities in which tunSau flourishes. 

The popularity of southern (Ihinrsc lighting arts (Hokkicn am] Kiir 
predominates. Sho Bun Seng of Fadaug is an oldster with a full knowl¬ 
edge of Sumatran ptnijak-ttlal and kuttiau history, lie decries the modern 
methods oE kunlao which he says are not well organized. Kunlw tradition 
has it that the master teacher will always teach less than hr knows to 
protect bis superior status. Since only the most dedicated arid proficient 
students would be capable pf deducing the untaught portion, in time 


kunlGO systems narrow Lind stagnate, Only by the application of each 
succeeding master's additions to the original system can the art per¬ 
petuate. The master teacher must make elaborations so that the tech¬ 
nical progress of the system may be post live, “Hut today the tradition 
is killing the art/ 1 says Hhn, “for young students are not so serious in 
their study und do not progress well enough to ensure that one day one 
0 1 them Will succeed <lS muster of the ‘style.’* 

The modern-day emphasis of young trainees centers on tin- empty- 
hand fig. 117] phase of ktiHtUO. Only Very few can expertly manipulate 
the single- and double-edged Swords, ike staff, lhe spear, and other 
weapons peculiar to Aroatao, 

117. Two virws wT j'mply-hand tuntw irainiuji in 
Padart|j r SlutijIi-js, 




Everyone with one of his hands 
wrought in the wark f 
and with the other hand 
held a weapon. 

-NEUEMJAH 4 i I 7 

■ Fentjak silat 

The term prntjak-sdat came into use oil Bali only after 1^30. Prior to this 
time there was no specific name fur LiambativS now iulisnmpd Linder 
that name. Many styles of such combativrs can be identified, wmc of 
which arc intrinsic to Bali* others positively transferred from Sumatra 
and j au under continental Asian srillueiLee. 

In western Rah the jODi’fc style is [mind in the Negara rity area- It is 
a secret tradition ami ail training is done under the utmost secrecy to 
keep it way. JoDUK, a Muslim-directed combative, lh not mechani¬ 
cally different from other Muslim forms on Java, Inti employs mystic 
trance I ike states to make its combatants fanatic fighters. The style is 
little known and never seen Iil any Other parts of Indonesia. 

Precombat, ad aspiring participants inflict wounds upon their own 
chest and abdomen, usually using the Aru in stabbing and slashing 
fashion. The combatants thus develop a high threshold against pain 
which is to come in the actual fight. Music, percussion type, with a 
spirited rhythm sets the stage for all preliminary rituals. Some form uf 
autosuggestion of veil-hypnosis is probably the method by which the 
trances and frenzied condition of the combatants are achieved. The 
self-inflicted tris I arc rat ions made during the precombat period are 
highly valued Fig. I IS)- 

Examination of the combatants during the precombat trances showed 
that only their forearms were tense or rigid; above the elbows they 
were relaxed. The precombat state was one of cairn, hut as tin.' light 
neared, the calmness was shattered and a near hysteria developed. 
Shouting and screaming accompanied the combats, incense was burned 
during llir entire weird affair. 



Joseph Kadj.tng AmrriA ofDcnpuar is .in authority on Balinese cul¬ 
ture and its combative forms, It is his qualified opinion that the pre¬ 
combat ritual, the trances, are in them selves the only distinguishing 
feature of this strange form of penijak-rilaL 

TriduaRMA, B1IAKTI NLGARA, and ESSTt are Considered "■purp 11 E3aSi- 
rpsc styles of fKntfak^siiffi. 1 These forms and that of the fehisae diri 
(peuSai Dim}, an hast Java transplant form, make up the dominant 
styles on this lush tropical island; the latter style is not Considered a 
pure Balinese pentjak-fiiat form, 

Tridiiarma, miakte ne«ara, and ehte appear to be highly deceptive 
systems. They rtly 1 uptm distractions produced by hand rnrivemcrtts^ and 
operate from tow-crouching postures which may make them less eco¬ 
nomical energy wise than the more upright ptnijak-iifoi systems, such as 
pkktsAi Dtkl. hxprnicnty of tlicse three Balinese styles are generally 
slight of build, wiry, and extremely ilegible. Actions are all induced a,nd 
performed by the rhythm of drum-percussion music (gtilgar^ but such 
music is not indispensable to the practice and rfleet. TRIDIIARMA, 
H MARTI RSOARA, and W$TI styles are alt highly reactive; that is, the 
enemy, under response to some preparatory demonstrative distraction^ 
is led into .1 follow-up attack. The three systems appear to lack aggres¬ 
sive action and arc less direct than, (he J-KRLsaI DJRI Style. Men and 
women practice in traditional black costumes; some use headbands 
much as did Japanese warriors. 

TriohaRwa is found in the northern Balinese areas. ITie word (pro¬ 
nounced "tree-darma”] means “threc-horesfy/peacrful," It is a bal¬ 
anced system enhanced by both the traditional weapons of ptnljai-iiiat 
pnd empty-hand taClicA. Both high acid tow poslurrS are employed. 
Movements make full use of lhe hands in large circular patterns. The 
rejTj^n,''. and depuk ground-sitting postures arc suggestive of Sumatran in¬ 
fluence as are the leg-sickle actions made from the ground designed Id 
sweep an upright attacking enemy’s advancing fruit. Leaping and stand¬ 
ing kicks are primarily of the straight-line delivery type, but can be 
made frontally and to the rear in a thrusting manner too; some use of 
the snap-kick and whjrli rig-pivot kick is sern. Nu “round-house" kicks 
Japanese maaxsia^gfri) arc practiced, All training and combat is per¬ 
formed on natural terrain, sometimes hard unyielding surfaces, Wit¬ 
nessed throws and fails took place art terrain which would put an Un¬ 
trained man into the hospital after (hr impart, 

The special weapon of trioharma is the rmte (chain). At one end of 
the chain is affitted a saw-toothed gcarlike metal weight (Fig. 119) , This 
weapon is whirled at different lengths while held in one hand. By 

t. This purity is arbitrarily assigned, The three pmtjak-riiat fti-rms stem frnm a com¬ 
mon mgl -jijI of Weft java iind haw liltlc dial i riel ion in identify dtingf peculiar Ln 
cavh. Whili: developed fm Bali, Just! clnuit Imius are curaidered i ’]jure rr in chat they 
are ihe producti uf UsJinac endeavor, while the oilier combative systems on Bab 
were From other areas- 

PALI 167 



I 19, file rmti of 'Tridliarrna sjftrf. 

changing hands, lhe length of the swing may be altered up to im maxi- 
nmm length of approximately one yard. 

Bhakti negara (sometimes sakti negara) was founded in 1955 by 
Ida Ffagus Uka DinwangkaraL. It is locati-Ecd in southern Balinese areas. 
The name implies ‘'sacrifice:'exclusive dedication/state." VVliat has been 
already discussed for the tridharm.i style applies equally to buakte 
mho Ah a f but there are some additional interesting chance eristics that 
make this pmtjak-silat form an ouistatiding one. 

Its founder admits that bis system. is a synthesis of older pet&jak-jilai 
ideas out of Java, combined, however, with modern foreign influences, 
sudi as Japanese jiijuint, aikidS, and karate-do, as well as Western boxing 
tactics. Some Kodokan judo techniques are being studied but are not 
yet completed as standardised for adaptation: ippon stoi-nage, ojitfti 
(-jun p -gokr, 'Otwhi, -gumma';, ko-ucki [-g&ri, -jaite), Unaot-nag£> and 
mgt arc popular (Fig. 3 20), H 

In its general operation bha KTl .vkoara pmtjak-xfat is highly decep¬ 
tive to the enemy. This feature is best described by the Chinese word 
hua, or ‘'flowers, 1 ' implying "decorative deception. 11 Some (Ihincir fight¬ 
ing forms are evidenced in pan in mhaxti neoaha, The striking actions 
which employ ihr “standing fist” (fist not screwed into target on de¬ 
livery} and the heel-thrust kick are cases in point, Stances and move¬ 
ments are a mixture of the Menangkabau sempok and depok ground- 
sitting jXritum, the low-crouching postures of West Javan tjj forms, 
and some Chinese Stiff tm positional attitudes. Stmpok or depak (Fig. 123) 
arc employed only when the distance or interval between the operator 
and the enemy is over two yards At closer ranges the beiakti kegara 
exponeni prefers to he on his feet. 

BifAKTi negara's highly evasive character is seen not only in the 
physical-technical plane but the very mood, personality, and manner 
of each exponent also reflects distraction. Exponents appear to be shy, 
timid, almost harmless En a combative sensr, literally unable to defend 
themselves, Under attack, however, the exponent comes to life (Fig, 
122) with a series of precise responses to any attack situation. The 
whole underlying key philosophy of buakti negara is defensive, but it 
is not by any means entirely so; the use of counterattacks after the suc¬ 
cessful defensive response has also been applied. 

2 . lillnldLited, clrmoriilrAEetfJ. and taught 14 KHAK11 SRf'iAHA officials by the author 
in 196-?, 


*20, Mtiftafi LLrtrtv- 

ing icthnfque; farm {fut 
left) and 4ippJjc:!itiu:i t.kjlY 

12'j. WhaltJ Nt^jira iilat technique: ap* 
pareiidy -ofl guard in r;:ilTJH:ry fKMilion 
(ufrflGf); rejpon:tmn la nITacIl [righ\ <. 

121. Alerincsa lii Uh.ikii Nuff&ra 
iildl ''sJuing" fjottuff. 

BALI 169 

Favchologicnlly speaking, the exponent of this ptrdjak-jilnl form tries 
to torment his enemy to make him lose mental poise. This device, plus 
deliberate deceptions in a physical sense—appearing to be in a weak 
posture or lacking alertness—is the method of ■piiakti segara, Such a is called a "‘weak counterpart position" and is based on deceptive 
stances and movements. This CH weakness" is always demonstrated openly 
and deliberately about two yards from the enemy. It is all decoy, a Eure 
to bring the enemy into a blind attack with bis mind set on bow easy 
tiie BiiAKTt nioajsa exponent looks. By such rmsjndement of the "weak 
counterpart position 11 tiie attacker leaves, holes in his defense and if 
subject to prompt and efficient counterattack. This decoy or ruse is 
termed iifman, implying "imitation substituted" (Fig, 123). 

Deceptive movements, however, cost energy, and the price the 
DiiAKTt neoara rxponenl pays for his ruses is often conditioned by his 
physical stamina, lie is taught to offer ruses only under careful con¬ 
sideration, weighing the chances of success against the method of lead¬ 
ing the enemy to destruction. 

The area of concentration on the enemy's body against which the 
exponent of dhakti NSOaSLa directs bis attacks differs from that of 
rr.Ri&Ai dir i or Eivn (both of which are midsection in verted- triangle 
target areas';. In wtTAKTI NEGARA the enemy's body 15 seen as a rectan¬ 
gular section and all concentration is placed cm a line with his shoulders 
(Fig. 124 1 Thrusting*striking, blocking, parrying, covering, distracting 


I2+, Center >if gaze and area 
cchm ' imjiliuii ■]t' iCLi' k in 
I^iakn Negara jf las. 

125. Th^ “AojLcjnR foot™ r.f Mat ri Ne^ira 


with the hands and arms, follow a fuller movement than that whicli 
predominates in pf.ri&ac qlki tactics. But some use of half-movement*; u f 
[tie arms is applied tn close infighting situations; short, choppy punch¬ 
ing actions may be delivered, By and large the delivery of the full arm, 
fist "screwed in 1 ' to the target punch, is favored over the more Chinese 
manner {standing list). Almost all blocking and parrying artions are 
made with the open hands. If the arm or wrist of a n haute hhoata ex¬ 
ponent is caught by the enemy, that seizure is sure to be struck loose by 
a slap from the ghahti sfoaTa exponent's free hand, 

Kicking is basically like other peWjak-siiai forms. Experts of the ioiakti 
pEOAItA style, such as A. Aik, are highly skilled with front?.] kicking 
and usually position themselves with a ‘'llnating” frontal foot to prepare 
for such tactics (Fig. 125). Bhakti nCgaha tactics also pay much at¬ 
tention to attacking the advancing foot of the enemy. Kirks may be 
directed against that leg which may also be reaped, swept, or hooked 
to throw the enemy off-balance. An enemy closing on the duaxti 
nfgara expert may suddenly find him abandoning Ins upright posture 
into stmpok OT dtfwk, there to act against the enemy's advancing leg. 

Some use of grappling infighting is employed, with joint-locks (Japa¬ 
nese kanstlsu usaza) favoredj* these methods are not yet highly devel¬ 
oped. Joints to be attacked as primary targets arc the shoulder and 
elbow; no consideration is given to the fingers or wrists. Some attaEiks 
against the enemy's legs involve the knee caught in a Scissoring action 
to produce painful injury. 

3, preceding more 

bALl l?l 

The standard weapons of paijak-siht arc all used in the huakti 
negara style. Dctermining just what is the favorite qf central weapon 
of this system is a difficult matter, for exponents are highly skilled with 
the staff {foytfJt [ he forked iron truncheon i.tjabmg), and the short knil'r 
[ ptidu). The staff technique (Fig, 126) exhibits iHat Melayu qualities 
in that a minimal use of hand sliding on (he shaft is used in elm course 
of manipulation. Tjabttng technique is excellent and depends on a some¬ 
what differently dimensioned instrument. Its tine shoulders ate square) 
than Olt most types, permitting a full hand to enter between line and 
shaft (Fig. 127). This accommodation permits a wide range of reversal, 
and other actions not possible by the usual design ul'tjab ang. l bc excel¬ 
lent use of the pisau too is different from what most other pentjak-siloi 
styles register as standard technique (Fig. E28-. The soft-grip handling 
of the short- h laded knife, with it? instantly fast reversals, I land ex¬ 
changes, and other clever ruses designed to confuse the potential victim 
perhaps stem from the tjabattg skill. 

The local weapon, cbe baliriesr kfit ixre p. 182), appears to hr so 
revered that its use in pirrtjok training is hardly seer Naturally the *ki!k 
of ejmaktj negara exports include the bii, but it may only be used in 
an emergency in silat. 

Tht: special weapons of euakti nfgara are worthy of mention Fig. 
150). 1 he lombak jago, a i pear-type weapon, has art overall length rtf 
about ten feel, the shaft being about (wo inches in diameter and made 
from hardwood. It is commonly held with the point downward, a char¬ 
acteristic which also i den Lilies the fact that its Cardc.s stem tfurn silat 
Melayu. This weapon is employed in thrust and slash actions. IU design 
dates from antiquity and because of its great length, which makes han¬ 
dling tiresome, few exponents study its methods. It may hr seen chiefly 
in the rituaU connected with cremation at which euiakti neoaha pe/tijak- 
iiiat is performed. The toyak is a halbcrd-like weapon much like the 
arfiir of phrisai diri (see p. 72). Its special usage involves slashing 
attacks. A special weapon simply called pedang, for want of a proper 
name, is not a Balinese weapon, but may be a mixture of the pvtlang and 
Japanese kalana single-edged, two-handed sword designs. I t is used in 
pentjiih movement, held by One hand, and is an extremely fast weapon. 
(Fig. 129). TEic pentjong. a short, hardwood stick or club, is still another 
special weapon or hhaKTi vkgaka (Fig. 130). 

Bt t aktt neoara was the second ptnijak-iitat organization formed on 
Bali and phi CCS jl„s tradition proudly forward as exemplary df what good 
pfntjak-ulai should be. There is a tremendous emphasis cm mural con¬ 
duct, and the usr cs-F silal technique is justified only in I he serious defense 
of one’s life or that of others. The founder of this system, the absolute 
leader, controls the standards of conduct. Discipline is high and it is 
related by a traditional story how one student [an expert) became 
involved in a fight of a challenge nature, without lirsL seeking the per¬ 
mission of the master and founder. 1 his breach uf the underlying ethical 


326. 1 h# iaj/a ;li list'd in Bhilai Negara i ildt. 

ITffl, The piuat aj uiL-d irt 33-J'i ji ki i N^gija ji/jJ. 

ijll. Thr tue of ibc pedant ^ 6h*i<3 Negara utul. 

127. The tja&emg as uted in Uhakci Negara alii. 

BALI 173 




130. Special iveapeini of rthakii liiai. 

concept of aiiAETi negara, even thougli lit emerged from combat vic¬ 
torious, Was enough lo bring tile wrath uf iIik founder down upon him. 
He was hunted down by several students, sent by ilie rounder to locate 
and impress upon him the fact that he had broken an honored tradition. 
Thr group of students finally located the breaker of their proud tradi¬ 
tion and repeatedly threw him into a pond until he was exhausted and 
almost drowned* He was then officially expelled from biiakti skcaka 
to emphasize dearly that no Fighting is tolerated by the founder unless 
first given his sanction. Unavoidable self-defense situations arc exempt 
from this sanction, but even then the exponent involved must be pre¬ 
pared to justify the methods he employs in victory, or defeat; it is better 
not to overdo the responses. 


On BaSi, qhr khaktj nkuara system is popularly referred to as prntjak 
3 Salt (sometimes even kuritao Balu. Ii has 151) branch srbnol& ( anting) and 
about twenty thousand individual members, It has not yet been ex¬ 
panded on nn international basis. Skill in this style of pentjak-siLt is 
indicated by colored belts. In die order of decreasing seniority ihose 
colon are violet, yellow, brown, blue, and red, Each has two classes. 
Only two violet belts, both belonging to master teachers, exist lor this 
system, Since the costume for riiakti nlgara is black, these belt colors 
contrast vividly and produce a pleasing effect. 

Championships determined by a sportive phase of bhaktt negara 
arc not the prime purpose of the system. But because some need was 
felt to identify the at live exponent* in terms of competitive skili, a S|>nrt- 
ing outlet was errated. Combatant? engage in empty-hand tactics, and 
points arc scored along specific lines which permit a high degree of 
action without unnecessary chance of injury. fltese bout! are held every 
three years and are always tied m witFi some official Halinrse Ceremony- 
The last championship bouts proved to be popular with the spectator 
audience and perhaps will! cause bicarte negara officials to consider 
annual events. 

bkA SftNTfWA .HKTL'ri {known simply as FJSTt) h fl pmtjttfl-sitlU form 
founded on Bali by 1 Made Rcgog* alias Pak Glinting. It was the firat 
organisation on Bali for punljak-sUai , developed in 1937 out of the under¬ 
ground movement against the Dutch- lU methods were finalized by 
1950, While claiming, loo, to lie pure Balinese style, its methods stem 
from southern Chinese Au.rf.3e roots, specifically Shaclin. It is a balanced 
system of the use of hands and feet and device weapons. Centering on 
Drnpasar in southern Kali, its spread to other Balinese arras lS limited. 

Era implies '"one. 1 " xk.htosa means “content" or “secure," while 
stTm translates as “accurate." essti is an independent movement with 
no claimed Current political overtones, but cooperates and exchanges 
its student* with tkiIjhakma. Both BtRISAl nifti and RHAKTt NTOaRA 
indulge to some extent in political action and are wooing llic ministry 
of education for status. 

The technical basis of essti is approximately (he Shaolin five prin¬ 
ciples; concentration of the eyes, economy of movement, footwork, 
striking force, and posture. These factors in essti are known as; 

kailat —open area intrusion or rlnaing oq (hr target 
kaiiin —to open and close the heart 

pentjak —the art of rhythmic movement occasioned for self-defense 

kilat —speed 

rilat skill for fighting 

The economic stance of the esste exponent is determined by the length 
of the operator"* arm (from shoulder to fingertip; Experts shorten this 
measurement distance while beginner? always exceed it. Stance is of the 

BA u 17 S 


131. Criilrj lit RAmr unit .1 h j 
of cijnctniraLkMi ul" .a clack in 
liiSlj jifjli. 

triangular type tujifiM ting stance; Japanese atkidi stance). The operator 
corrrnlralrs his forces [mental and physical) tin his enemy’s rh«t ill an 
area which may be described as an inverted Eri;i,npLc with its apex ai the 
groin (sec flresai Ddu, p. 72) (Fig. 13!). His gaze focuses on the 
enemy's midjecuott. 

The hand i$ fnrrnc-d in closed or half-open manner* and is used with 
short movement!, a feature which points dearly to Chinese influence. 
The body-to-elbow distance is always minimized fur the protection of 
the rib, and the formed hand is always held very dose to the facial 
area of the operator; this separation distance is measured by a finger 

Blocking actions are used which employ licilh ulnar a nr! radial areas 
of the forearm, but the larger bone area near the wrist, as provided by 
the radial area, is preferred. 

Kicking is styled after the usual kicking tactics of pent juft -\ii at and 
performed from a preferred upright pnsiurr; kicks delivered from (he 
ground-sitting posture i depok or jenifSwft) are minimized. All parts of the 
font are used, as contact Surfaces and almost always [lit: operator takes 
a profile position and scrupulously avoids Frontal stances (perhaps a 
Shantung kuntao inftucnce)- 

Sportivc outlets for ehTI are limited lo those times when technique 
evaluations must be made; no spectators arc permitted. The small mem¬ 
bership (some three thousand exponents) of esstt seeks no mass popu¬ 
larity and cottfinrs itself to a serious study of combative engagements. 

The v-r.RisAl mitt style til ' pentfak-sitfU has been 1 r.mspL.i 1 iLed from East 
Java to Bah. It is currently under the technical direction of a Balinese, 
M. Swrtja of Denpasar, a master teacher im aha gu.-ns) f who imparts 
vitality and realism to the system. As to be expected, Swctja's Balinese 
P.D. does noidilTer from tbe system on Java. However, some additional 
comments are in order. 

17G weapons and fighting arts 

Swctja emphasizes the P.D, characteristic of straight-] inc action and 
economical application of the operator's body to the stance of the 
enemy. TIlc operator's platform fool points in the direction of the target. 
A dependence upon evasive action is. also a characteristic of P, D n hut 
when pressed* open-handed blocking and parrying actions a re excellent. 
Speed ol delivery of the P.1.V exponent's hands c,;sr br judged from the 
fact that top-level experts can Laud 120 blows in two minutes (stationary 
dummy target , all with accuracy. This protracted exertive feat is also 
indicative of physical stamina. 

All training is carried out on natural terrain. Beginners arc generally 
restricted to level arras, while the more advanced and experts practice 
on uneven,, rocky,, or loose sand-shell coral beaches. Weapons training 
plays an important role in the development of the expert (Figs. 

n ALI 177 

Ski Its in P.D. arc visually identified by a Hide range of fourteen ranks, 
utilizing the lw][ cedars white, green, bine, red, yellow, and a half-red 
half-ydlow in order of Increasing expertise. The following periods of 
active training lime are usual fur the achievement of skills: 

while to green—If years 
green to bine—E| more years 
blue to red—2 more years 
red to yellow -3 more years 
red and yellow over 10 years 

Sweija calls attention to the fact that I*. I>. has only nine red-yellow belt 

17 & WF.A POT® AND Fir; HT1 NG AR M>: 

134. Perisai Difc fiiai of Bali; the (Mm versus an 
asrnmI wniiint [2 views} 

135. Haljneie Etidt, 

BALI 17& 

l it. A Kali new ceremonial blade. 

■ Other Weapons and Systems 

Among llir hgluing systems! found mi Bali is the tNDE ■system • Fig. 1 3hJ, 
It is tenicred on jo eastern Bali region in the Knrang Ajzm area 
where it is also known as tens an an. If the general theory about the 
founding ol'LNbF. being an indigenous product of the island of Mores 
(see Chapter 5, p, 185) is accepted h it it probable that this combative 
form was transferred to Bali by traders and visiting natives. The Ibrtn 
of combat cm Buli (dhows somewhat the tame pattern a* it doe* for the 
neighboring island of Lombok (see p. 1921. 

The bladed weapon is the most esteemed on Bali (Fig. 137). A great 
variety of different blades may In* found [here, some functional as 
agricultural tools* such as lhe aril (sickle). Others are purely ceremonial 
(Fig, 13b), while still others are made to serve solely as weapons In 
defense of life and property* Balinese spears are today Ceremonial, hut 
there was a time in the medieval past when they were standard weap¬ 
onry necessary in repelling the aggressive Muslims. Spearheads are of 
various designs. The Balinese gotok, a deaver-type knife* is a wicked- 
appearing blade that boasts a long Combative tradition- Not all bladed 
weapons are made of nictal* however; the Singaraja urea in northern 
Buli makes use of the pringapus, or "bamboo knife.” It perhaps derived 
from the metal-bladed knife, the tadji. Both arc short in overall length 
and used in stiletto fashion. The favorite method is to thrust the slim 
blade into the ear of a sleeping enettty. Poison is sometimes applied 
to the tip of (hr blade. Whereas the itidji Can be used to Stab into the 
abdominal region, then palm-nf-the-heel thrust to deepen the penetra¬ 
tion (Batak-like tactic; sec Chapter 3, p- 15®}, or may be two-handed ly 
crissn: rested while stuck in the enemy’s abdomen, the pringapus cannot 
stand the pressure of such actions; it can only he eUVctive if used for 
one-handed slashing or stabbing tactics. 





1.17. Hat these 1 tal acted t-v i',i|>i]fia. 

BALI 181 

133. A Kniim'se int-amilh ip<wdr'\, 

Thr Balinese kris may be seen hi forms not too unlike many of the 
Javanese varieties. Both <lie dapm Uiq (undulate blade and the Sapor 
bentr (straight blade) exist on Bali All forging is veiled in mysticism and 
the pujitlc (south) controls this art with secretive jealousy I Fig. 138), 

The Balinese irw is usually straightsr in general blade outline and 
longer than the Javanese types {Fig. 13"F>>. I’crhnps the longest bis 
blade on record is that in the private collection of Made Tjandra of 
Dcnpasar. The bladr measures seventy cendmetm, and the weapon 
has an overall length of four fen, compared to the average Balinese 
kris blade, some forty to fifty cent!meters long, with an overall length 
of sixty-si* centimeters. Repot ted to be almost lWO hundred years nld, 
this magnificent weapon is the only one of Its kind remaining on Kali 

(fig- m. 

Occasionally the Balinese kris is called a darning (as it is on Java! and 
is identified by its accentuation of the Kala-head design of its handle- 
It was designed to be worn in differenl ways depending upon the pur¬ 
pose. The normal way is ehi the back of the right shoulder, handle pro¬ 
jecting to the right; ceremonial use requires that the Am be worn behind 
the right hip, thrust through the sash, in handle (o the right., 

Not all Balinese km today arc functional. Newly made ones are more 
fof decoration purposes than for combat. Authentic older weapons rel¬ 
egated to family shelves as heirlooms collect dust in the martial vacuum 
of Kali A modern age. Few got id smiths Still live and practice the art 
they once made famous, Kris sold Lay peddlers dti B-ali’s streets are at 
best bad reproductions and more Likely “toys.” However, the family 
kris of the Alit family in Samtr reflect the glory of the days of old. 
These excellent pieces supposedly carry with them “magical proper¬ 
ties 0 which include the ability to rattle in their sheaths nit the first sign 
of approaching danger, and the usual properties lliut Sul round a Junc¬ 
tional kris. Their designs are excellent arid pnmur beautiful. 


MCI. I lie longest lialinese Irif blade with thealh. 

PAL! Ifl3 

On the massive and (i-rut:«u&. stone images that abound on Bali can 
Im icen a great variety of Grange weapons (Fig, 141), Many of these 
instruments arc rot identifiable- Others Em- likened to these preva¬ 
lent today. The importance of these images to a study of Hahn esc 
weaponry and methods of employment is undeniably larger but as yet 
remains to be more fully explored, 




For a wound of deaths 
fit a death wound atone. 


I Peutjak-flllat end Kuntuo 

Both penljak-sdal and kunlua ^xist in ? hr Lesser Sundas; Iwwevtri must uf 
these entities there do not differ greatly from their ruot forms extant on 
the islands of Java, the Celebes, and Sumatra. 

An exiraardinary feature for most pfntjtik-silat is seen in some of the 
Timorese forms. This is the use of biting tactics when e Engaged at du&r 
quarters with the enemy. Natives on Timor make good use of their 
unusually large and strong teeth to inflict painful and possibly lethal 
wounds on their enemy. The nerk and throat areas are especially prized 
as targets. The power of the natives' teeth aj]d jaw muscles is 
amazing. At Niki-iiiki (south-central portion of Indonesian Timor), the 
author’s native guide demonstrated his skill by biting chunks from a 
piece of ordinary softwood planking which was slightly over otic inch 
thick; spitting the pieces gleefully to the ground, In: motioned that such 
treatment would befall his enemy. 

Timorese natives perhaps train their biting efficiencies by their daily 
habit of stripping sugar-cane stalks with their teeth arid eating the 
fibrous Lengths. 

Aside from this Timorese spec Laity, tjoih pmtjak-iUat and kuntao need 
n.o attention here. Rather, Lt is the comhatLves endemic to this arc of 
islands that are more meaningful and worthy of attention. 

■ Other Weapons and Systems 

The island of Flores lies sandwiched between the Flores Sea on the 
north itnd the Savu Sea on frhr south; it Lies as a link in the extension of 
a chain of islands ru tan big eastward from Java. A combative called 


tjatji (alio tjatjing) appears to in- indigenous to Floret- Its formal 
name, wain tjatji, translates approximately to “to do' 1 and * "strike the 
enemy.” It is sometimes also called e»de, the name under which it has 
been exported to neighboring islands (see Lombok, p, 192; also ser 
(tali. Chapter 4 r p. LEO: . A more complete investigation of this exporta¬ 
tion of i nof. and the location of similarly designed lighting arts is needed 
before any conclusive evidence can lie given to indicate the factual home 
for this combative form. 

Tjatji is a realistic fighting art, and there are several manners of 
performance. One system uses a hardwood stick about one and one-half 
yards long by two inches in diameter, and a shield made of buffalo hide, 
f-]Ijp deal or circular in shape, as the only weapons. Neil her the Stick 
nor the shield is decorated. The slick is called a tnngkat pemukut , the 
shield djoy or fifing [if of wood, prim Inyei) ( Fig. 142). Two com¬ 
batants take turns attacking and defending alternately, 1 one using the 
stick, (hr other the shield. The slick operator attempts in heal the shield 
hearer into submission with a series of striking tactics as opposed to 
thrusting. Any portion of the anatomy is a fair target. The shield bearer 
may attempt disarming’ the stick wieldcr. This system of TjA'rjt is 
centered on ilir Manggarai area in west Flores. 

In bLi tut her system the stick is replaced by the chtmtti or the kalus t both 
whips fig. 142). The (htmtri, a long whip, is must commonly made 
from the main length) of palm stems, tied together wiih strips of buffalo 
hide or ratal t (rattan) at intervals a Lung its long axis. As the taper end 
is reached, more, but smallet-dianirtrr stalks arc introduced until the 
tail imrinm is narrow but extremely strong and flexible. Sometimes 
iwisted bullalo hide becomes the main element of the t hr met*. Its usual 
length is between live and six Eert. I'Eie katub is a shorter length whip 
about three feet long which corrcspmdi roughly to the type used 
in tiie Pemurogo combative style of East-Central Java {see tjamjujk, 
p. 99). 

Combatants, two in number, staud naked to the waist. They may 
choose either the tains or the longer chtmeli as their offensive weapon. 
One holds the shield and is expected to accept the attack of tlie other 
without recourse to offensive action of any kind. The defender may, 
however, swing his whip circularly around bis head at any pace he 
chooses; the unwary attacker, ton Iwnt on dosing with the defender, 
may thereby suffer injury from (he whirling whip tail. The defensive 
attitude of the shield-bearing combatant is made realistic by the other 
combatant who vigorously attempts to land his whip. He is permitted 
ihrrr blows, after which he must take up the shield and accept the 
attacks of the opponent, also permitted three blows (Fig. 143b 

Nem nrccBifily unique. Certain Australian ahnmsiruit rumba u. permit the alter- 
ruLti 1 .i.uat k-di-reuM, 1 roles. 'S he relriiiiinship tteiwepri Ausiraban uitd IndoiiiAiitn 
aboriginal eornUailvH mi turns in bf more thoroughLy irivest>gated. 



(Slug VIEW) 


142. Tjacji weapcmrv, 



I4S. Tjatji combatant*; cW*n- 

HVC pnsitirm rkf -h!.'|..l-lw.i11||>; 
romli*Mnt (pftaw), a.nc3 rlplirfltler 
Li VfealhrrinK ihrer Li][*wi 

i right'). 

The bouts an* made lively by an exchange of clever ladies. 'The at¬ 
tacker, using his whip, seeks to "fake out” the defender, getting him to 
lower die shield, away from bis, and then striking a quick blow 
with the whip. The defender, however, is usually too clever to be caught 
by such an elementary ruse, and hi spite of blows landing on his body, 
some of which draw blood, he may refuse to lower ihe shield. He may 
even turn his back to his opponent and “weather out' the three blows. 
Combatants arc permitted a doth worn draped over the head and 
bound by a cord, Only visible lash marks on the facial area are con¬ 
sidered points; one such mark determines the winner and all action 


then ceases. The winner is then required to King in a hearty manner 
while the loser sings in a low voice to show despair. Koih of liic com¬ 
batants ;irr' cheered on by family and friends. Experienced combatants 
are heavily scarred \m the arms and upper body; all, lasers have ugly 
whiplash Stars on lheir luce, 

The latter-described style of tjatji is most popular in the west M&ng- 
giirai area. Dr. Herman Bader, a Herman, of the seminary at Maialoco, 
is a historian and expert on the culture of Flores, as is Joseph Kadjang 
Amerta id Dcnpusar, Rli 1 i, who spent twelve years mi Flores, Both recall 
the heated battles rd a decade ago when tjAtji bouts were almost a 
weekly occurrence. Today, they are Iris popular and are almost always 
ton fined kj festivals. Dr, flo YatlW Licm now of 1 Surabaja, Java, recalls 
championship bouts he witnessed during his twelve-year stay on Flores, 
In these bouts the victor was he who managed to whip out the other 
combatant's eye, 

A most peculiar boxing style which is a quasicurnbative exists also on 
Flores Island, It is called main tinoju, which means ”to do” 

^ boxing”; 8 the lack od an intrinsic native- name may indicate that it is 
a recent addition In the island's combative activities. No known origin 
for (his form has tiem discovered. 

Four persons take part in [his a muring and spirited combat. The 
actual combatants tWO) are required to lwa[ each Other into submis¬ 
sion, using only she hands and arms and shoulders; no kicking or 
throwing is permitted. Open hand, dosed fast, or combination* of both 
as well as clbuWS ate brought into play. Hooking blows and backhand 
deliveries require that the closed fist not be used For these actions; only 
the middle knuckle of the semiclcnehcd list is permitted as a striking 

The peculiarity of MaLs nsrojti -clems from the fact that the actual 
combatants are steered from behind, each by his partner, who Eirmly 
child is the combatant's waistband a twisted piece of native bain cloth ) 
and maneuvers him, much like a pupprtrer or hand-doll manipulator. 
S-hovjng, polling, pushing, and swinging liis ‘‘weapon 11 in and out of 
range, he ensures that the fight does not become static. The whole affair 
requires a tremendous amount of (^operation and coordination between 
partners, if an effe< live attack-defense is lobe developed and maintained 

Joseph Kadjang Amerta recalls that early bouts permitted each of the 
combatants to wrap one fist with a cloth, hut ncu twfore a smooth, 
round alone had been firmly clenched in the band. This added weight 
amounts to mote than the roll-of-dJmes tactic known to Western thugs, 
A blow from a stone-laden band is enough to flatten an opponent, and 
often period* injuries result. The Stone may be wrapped to project from 
either end of the list. 

2, !l is wirwnnwt referred io u bajaivau bos, after rhe nam« nf ihr area in which a 
a ttidsi rammnnlv seen iFtajawnhl. Marry nation onl> know it by die lirnple Emtlnli 
appdiillkiili "Ih*k.." 


Points determine victory and are scored, insofar as I could determine, 
by making solid contact with assigned vital areas on die opponent's 
bodv, which in turn vary with the wishes of the combatants, main 
T inrpjLi is also most papular during the various festivals held on Flores. 

The natives of Flores t as well as those on the small neighboring island 
of Adonara, have often been dubbed men of the “isle of murderers” by 
early writen,. They were simply practical warriion who merely d*-- 
Fended tbi-msrlvrs against encroach menu; on their properties. Their 
(igluing was restricted to the defense of their villages, or in extreme 
cases, individuals against individuals. The parang, a long native knife, 
was their main weapon (Fig, 141). On Sabu Island, where firad. is 
tremendously scarce, the natives are nevertheless energetic,. subsisting 
mainly on a diet of sugar carte. Chtmrti fighting is their strongest com* 

Skills with the parang are commonly demonstrated by young Flores 
schoolboys who wield these "mral cleavers 1 ' 1 with vigor. Cuts and scars 
on their arms attest to their practice fights. The parang is also known as 
the tvh in times of peace. During Wartime U is referred to as a bita-leong, 
which means “war parang’*', sometimes tbi* name name is attached Eo 
the parang used for combative purposes. Dimensions for the war parang 
vary with the user's taste, but range from the smallest of overall length 
of twenty-live inches, to lh(j*r just short ot five feet. Blades arc ten to 
thirty-six inches in length- 

Thr Flores native has always been quite a horseman, and has pre¬ 
served his riding skills by the lest known as nar-ktida, implying “to mount 
and climb a horse" j it is also known as ieti djarang, or “to ride a horse.” 
This lest is the Flores version of broncobusting. 

The USC of the bow and arrow. Hie WiiM and tain as well as the Spear, 
or imhing, in diHi-rent sizes is often combined wiLli good horse- 
tnaitship tu provide effective cavalry deployments for use against invaders 
(Fig. 144), The labt can also l>e replaced by the arrow form ktiuwo an 
hupol. It is this latter kind of arrow which is used today by bowmen who 
keep the combative effect ofarchery alive by their practice of shooting 
at targets placed on posts in tbe ground. In west Flores the spear is re¬ 
ferred to as a /toning; in east Flores the same weapon is called repan. 
Individual lengths range up to about ten feet. 

The battle tactics of the Floret islanders did not allow killing of wom¬ 
en or children, but males were shown tio mercy. Followed by their 
women, the warriors fought valiantly. Die women could be seen gather¬ 
ing the weapons of Eallen rncu while still others recovered the dead 
bodies and took them back In the villages, there to be propped up out¬ 
side the appropriate huts as a symbol of courage. 

Flora combaLives could easily have a strong Chinese influence. His¬ 
torian van Heekeren (j Bronze Ago has reported; "Ngada in Flores dates 
back to the Late Chou style of China," suggesting a cultural exchange 
or transfer from the Asian continent to this island, The matter is as ycl 


m l ly 



144 . Flortu wpipqnry. 


not thoroughly studied {see Chapter I}. Perhaps the best source of this 
alleged connection, insofar ns combative* are concerned, lies wi ih tin* 
fwnljtik^jilai style character!sties which show gTccil affinities for Chinese 
kuntaa movements (Fig- 143), 

Lombok lies just cast of Kali, On this rather desolate island exists a 
form of combat called end*,, The very name, bring that nf a port city 
of southern Flores, suggests that the combative form was transferred 
from Flores to Lombok. Since unde is also present on neighboring Bah, 
the theory of this possible transfer made by traders and visiting natives 
is strongly grounded. 

Combatant* for ende are each armed with a shield called fdWAi? 
and a club known as a petjut, which may also be replaced by a whip 
i Fig. 146), The fxijat is a weapon consisting of a hardwood handle 
to which is fastened a short leather thong tipped by a ball of knotted 
leather. The overall length of this weapon is approximately forty inches, 
A small metal sphere may be attached CO clu’ thong. This produces 
the roost dangerous form of bmds, The weapon is thro like a Hail and 
can inflict some severe injuries when expertly used against an unfortu¬ 
nate opponent. In some instances the metal sphere Ea attached directly 
to the shaft, and the weapon is used like a club. 

At close quarters the two combat ants beat each other's shield; alter¬ 
nately, three times., then simultaneously withdraw about six fret apart, 
a position from which the actual combat begins. The action is intense 
and any portion of the opponent's ana torts y is a fair target arid each 
irit-s his best to defend himself. The attacks are concentrated against the 
eves, and the peculiar characteristic of this fighting method is that little 
attempt is made to use the shir Id to protect the body except around the 
head region. Each combatant willingly takes hard blows to his trunk 
and legs, but always keeps the shield covering the vital brad art a. The 
con lest is a bloody affair and is decided by a knockout or resignation of 
a combatant. There ls no time limit. 

Still farther eastward from f.^mbok and lying sandwiched between 
that island and Flores is the large island of Sumbawa. It is host to the 
system of sui-A/t, which translates to mean 'Tight. 1 ' This combative is 
lor the alert, active man and ls very dangerous. Clad only in short loin- 
cloths, combatants, optionally carry the shield [Ilhia^}. One ol their 
ha[fos is wrapped with the flexible pineapple leaf with serrated edges. 
It may be further bound with cloth to hold the leaf in place. Unlimited 
free-for-all engagemenu of short duration ensue with each combatant 
maneuvering to wound the other. And wound* arc frequent but easily 
dosed and heated by native medicines specially prepared and on hand 
for ihe occasion. Livid scars on experienced battlers show the accuracy 
of past opponents faced. Older men substituted a short piece of doth for 
the serrated stalk, but their combative spirit lacked nothing fFig, 1+7), 

The bow and arrow have always been held in high esteem by the 
fighting men of Sumbawa. However, today, all that remains of what 


J‘t&. The taming ishiddl anti ptljtti :r!hcFng{;d dubj 
uicd in Lticuttuk i'!iid<'. 

l+7 r J'hc -S-ulai ayitafi inf SumtMiwiL. 

t45. Fkiro |n{|at-iihi tlyle. 


was once combative archery is a test oFskib by which two opposing sidei 
composed ufan equal number of contestants Fire arrows at a target. The 
target is strung loosely oo a high wire or rope, and the impact from the 
arrows moves the target along the suspension strand. I’he opposing 
bowmen lire obliquely at the target and thus do not endanger one an¬ 
other. The target moved to the full length of the suspension constitute 
victory (Fig- 34B). 

South of Flores lies Sumba, which is also a large island, housing 
effective combative systems. The Sum bail warrior is an excellent horse¬ 
man Fig. J49) Hind much of his lighting technique is applied while 
mounted; fur example, jousting- 3 Armed with long spears, combatants 
charge along circular runways, tangential to each other, and whenever 
their courses intersect, they try to land a thrust or knock their opponent 
from his mount and slam hint to the ground with the butt end of the 

3_ A similar form W f™rid at Rfct> an Klsjniti I’riorlh wert coast). 


149. A Suinba warrior armed for jouiLio^. 

sprat ill flub 1 addon 'Fig. 150}. Women are the thief observers and 
lupportm of these combats, rath cheering loudly for her favorite The 
modern-day spears are filled with blunted ends, but in days of old 1 
victory was decided by running the enemy through. 

Also found on Sum ha is sum ba bok, ll combat between two contestants 
permitting only fist blows. Prior to combat t each list of the combatants 
is carefully wrapped in a wild,, saw-toothed grass leaf (Fig. S5>J i; the 
barbed edges are arranged in various patterns which arc expected lu 
not only bring good lurk hi battle but to product- vicious wounds against 
the opponent. The combatants art- alto-wed only three- engagements for 
a short period of time each. The blow; are directed lt> employ the saw- 
toothed edges of ihe wrappings to lacerate the opponent’s facial area 
and cause him to resign. Swipes across or slightly above the eyes arc 
particularly valued as the blood flowing from such wounds literally 
blinds the opponent and usually causes his defeat. 

TH E J.KSSEk sun das IBS 

152. Ceremonial war dance of fttittibn 

The Sumban warrior, unmounted, carriers a lomia, or ''shield/* as 
a constant companion in battle, He is expected to he skilled in dub 
techniques; such weapon* are of all imaginable shapes a] id usually have 
their business end imbedded with sawHsh and shark teeth (Fig. 153). 
Some use is made of the parang and Lhe bow and arrow. By ceremonial 
war dances, the Silfnban warrior inflates his martial ardor 'Fig. IS? . 

TlmtJrrK pa lives are rua specially known. lor their bravery. I 'hey can 
Lie counted on to light in a cowardly fashion, ambush being their forte. 
These warriors of Timor, the large island lying southeast of Flores and 
northwest of Darwin, Australia jointly shared by Indonesia and 
Portugal' , fight from both mounted and unmounted positions. 

On foot, Timorese fighting men show favorable disposition toward 
protective body armor and additionally carry a shield faming). Dr. 
Duefendecker describes I hem: 

Every man was armed with a spear and a long knife, and if he had 
not a long Tower dim lock over his shoulder, he grasped a Imsv 
and a handful of arrows. Eight shafts made of the tall canes that 
grow everywhere in the island tipped with poisonous bamboo 
barbs. Many of them carried besides a buffalo hide shield to 
ward off the stones which, suddenly engaged, they arc in a habit 
of discharging and with wonderful power and accuracy at cacli 
other. 4 

Stone throwing as a functional lighting pul has its strongest I ndonesian 
exponents oil Timor. 

■I, Ndlm cm rtce>fd ii lhe Cftiholk Wiukin f KiHamananu, Timor. 



CL1 iJS 

LS4. Timorese weaponry. 






Moll rued warriors fought with their IcjBfs tied under their steeds to 
avoid decapitation, the inevitable consequence of being defeated in 
battle; wounded, they could not, so tied, slip from the mounted position 
to the ground* there to be butchered by the enemy, 

Timorese warriors are quite fond of their parang, a heavy-bladcd 
short sword which sports a uniquely designed and complicated handle 
:Fig. 154}, The average Timorese parang ranges between twenty-four 
and thirty-iwo inches in overall length. Mo (ess popular is the gads, 
d clubhkr weapon, which is wielded with speed and accuracy. Timorese 
lighting men are not content to lei the club be confined to its simplest 
design, a bare piece of wood, but generally they lack die desire to «m- 
bed sharp-pointed objects in the club head-s, such as is the custom 
on Sum bn, Timorese gada made good use of stone brads, some of which 
ace ellipsoid-shaped stones bound to the shaft; others are doughnui- 
h] iaped pollslicd stones held in place by friction, Still other clubs have 
the rough sun-dried shark’s skill around their husilWfSS rods. Tffmbiik i 
or spears, are made for use as projectile weapons; lew hand-to-hand 
fencing tactics are employed, or even understood, Spear length some¬ 
times exceeds ten leet Fig, 154}, 

One weapon, a st range - appearing device,, Inis been lost td modern- 
day natives, both by name and technique (Fig. 155)-* By its design it 
may have been used as a device to parry defensively, to thrust and stash 
offensively, nr it may also have served as a ceremonial instrument. At 
Larantuka will be found excellent tjahang techniques among natives who 
arc trained in ptnijak-xilai; a single ijabeng is sometimes used in conjunc¬ 
tion with the: shield. Along the southeastern coastal regions some boom¬ 
erang skills exist, but it is not known if the instrument was ever used in 
battle. fi 

155, A Timorese weapon of unknown name LiEktl use. 

5. tW weapon mrrrotEy a pari of []«• Indonesian National Museum in bjitirti 
hcArs wme resemblance to the kuiarigama (Issbin p^i# itylc) of Japan, 

6. This weapon appear* not to be a recently iram ftflfl l one. Bui its -connection with 

I he Australian EyjH'b, u chjI understood, 




And ike sheen of their spears 
was like stars on the sea, 


■ Background 

"|"lir strangely shaped island nil" the Celebes (Sulawesi lies direcUy east 
of Borneo (Kalimantan). Appearing like some microscopic creature 
which has taken on macro proportion the Celebes has long been the 
hob of an area dedicated to piracy and intertribal warfare; it is these 
two gruesome activities which provide some of the most interesting 
aspect# of combative forms in the world. From the combative stand¬ 
point the peoples most involved in these two activities and most a fleet¬ 
ing the development and rmpluyihrtil uf the weapons of the Celebes 
have been the Btlgis, the Makassarrse, the Bajau, the leuadju tribes, 
and the inhabitants of the Mirahaia- Pavid Scpher’s Sea Nomads gives 
a scholarly description of these peoples and their related cultures. 

Piracy, with its ambush of helpless craft and often the murder of the 
crews, has had a long history in. the Indonesian Archipelago. Generally 
it has followed the trade routes in those areas ranging from Sumatra in 
the west to die Molucca# in the east. The Celebes has been a convenient 
focal point Fnr the fiajag, or *'p] rates,' 1 a# the Javanese refer to them 1 he 
wild, uninhabited coastal areas <if mangrove swamps and rocky inlet# 
provided hideouts for the Lawless refugees and outcasts, who lived a 
phantom Like existence to remain in business. 

Hut piracy, as a phenomenon, is not just an economic function- Ac¬ 
cording to Sopber it require# three condition#; (I) the existence of 
produc tive, but defenseless, coastal communities or trade routes; (2) a 
nomadic way of life based on tribat warfare, headhunting, feuds., and 
raiding as accepted instiiutiuris; and (3) superior striking power of the 
piratical force combined with elusive speed and some degree of in¬ 
vulnerability or immunity from counteraction at the home base. It is 
the second and third points which are germane herein, since they Call 


be interpreted to include the consideration of weapons, psychologically 
am! physically applied by the necessary ingrcdicnls for successful piracy 
—aiirprise and terror. 

The history oFlfre Bugis and Makassarese cannot properly be shown 
to Eiegin until the early seventeenth century, Prior to this (ime, accord¬ 
ing to tradition, all began with what A. Bastian records as “a ruling class 
coming from heaven ,' 11 This legendary period is fallowed by a period of 
pseaduhi Story that places the area of Makassar as a dependency of the 
Majapahk in the mid-fourteenth century, Islam* introduced intoGowa, 
the most powerful slate of the early Makassarese realm., brought rulers 
and populace under its sway and Muslim weapons into the Celebes. 
The Makassarese control extended oner the Bugis and spread to Flores, 
Sum bawa, the Sul a Islands,, and to the east coast of Borneo. After the 
destruction of Makassarese power in. lhfiQ by the Dutch, an event made 
possible by Bugis alliance with the Dutch, the Bugis pnwrr grew in 
Bone, the southwestern area of the country. 

The Bugis 1 are outstanding as shipbuilders, sailors, adventurers, and 
merchants. They have even served as mercenaries for Malayan tajah. 
The early reports of Tornt Tires, Portuguese historian of the early six¬ 
teenth century, are questioned by Sopher, insofar as what is being 
reported as applicable to the Bajuus (Bajaus), is perhaps mote relevant 
to the pre-Muslim Bugis. Pi res writes in Suma Ofienlalt 

They are at! heathens, robust, great warriors. These men in these 
islands are greater thieve than any in the world, and they are 
powerful and have many prau [a type of sailing craft], They sell 
the slaves they capture..., they all wear ktvu. They are well-built 
men They go about the world and everyone fears them, because 
no doubt all the robbers must E>liey these with good reason. They 
carry a great deal of poisoned weapons and shoot with them, . „, 
every other ship in the country they have in their hands. 

Such a desolate picture which paints the Bugis as a pirate menace is 
overexaggerated. Their ability to eornmi.t piracy, while common, Lg by 
no means their racial trait. Sopher notes in Sea Nomads: 

The Bugb had the reputation of colourful adventurers, playing 
an active part in local wars, on the Malayan and Sumatran coasts 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and although their 
commercial activities included the merchandising of slaves, a 
legitimate activity until the advent of European control, they 
were to be trusted as men of the strictest honesty. 

1. A- Bia-iitn, InAantiim dit truth tkt MaJanKht* Anhipti (Berlin: Fend. Dummltn 
YertaftsbuchEiandlunB, IBfl.i, 5 vnl*.]. 

2, Tiu'W^i, i.c., ilit people of Wig!, as the Bugif refer id iliEmieJva. 


Both G. W. Earl a»d [\ Form corroborate Syphcr’ft opinion nod 
Forrest ventures to opine that the Bugis have a reputation for courage 
♦'which certainly $mptUK» tfiat of alt others to the eastern was. , , / 3J 
Piracy throughout the Indonesian Archipelago, like the crocodile, 
kas been :l serious deterrent to the unrrsirktcd noevemeiits of man. 
Lying in concealment along well-traveled shipping lanes, the pirates 
made skillful use of the protective covet of the coastal habitat. They 
depended upon ambush tactics for their corsairlikr existence, While the 
Makassarese arc relatively exempt from valid accusations to brand them 
as pirates, it is historically certain that the Bug is cannot be. They suf¬ 
fered too much from Dutch commercial expansion, which in Him led to 
fomented bitterness and resentment. Raffles [I/tutory qJ Java) explains it 
wclf, almost as if ill justification of their deeds.: 

A maritime and commercial people, suddenly deprived of honest 
employment or the means of respectable subsistence, either sank 
into apathy and indolence or expended its natural energies in 
piratical attempts lo recover, by force or plunder,, wlial it had 
been deprived of by policy and fraud. 

It is this/urct inertiat piracy that affords the Bugis a most important 
place in tins chapter, the Makassarese somewhat lesser so, 

■ Butyls and MakuaHarost 

As seafarers both ihr bugis and Makassarese are devoted to (he knife. 
I he badik * sometimes called the “butterfly knife/' so named because of 
its shape which resembles the insect, is their favorite weapon. It comes 
in a great variety of shapes and sizes (Fig. Ibfi). hath the Bugig and 
Makassarese, eyrn in (his modern age, daily carry (he tw4ik Concealed 
in their garments, and are quick to bring it into action. Rarely a day 
goes by in modern Makassar city that somebody is not cut by the 
badth. The bathk is worn at (heir right side, butt end of the handle point¬ 
ing to the rear- it may also be positioned at their left side providing the 
butt end o| the handle points to the rear. However, when the badik is 
shifted from the right to left side T or when worn at the left, handle re¬ 
versed—facing forward—it is signatory of impending combat (Fig, 
15B), Such manipulations are normally made in anger and warn of 
their mood. 

The icfrM almost always is brought into action from the intended 
victim's side or rear. The draw is made across thr operator's body by 

3. See fcartb £iiWa Au, or Vayagri and AivmUffti in r he Indian Arrfaptlago (LoEtdoa: 
Wm. Huitrn and Co., UJJ7) and Funot'i l-Wji fnw Cabal r,j to thr Mtrgm Artki- 
ptltifia {Londuii, I 7Mi l, 

4, Aim spelled badt^ bttdi. baJit , and bidet, 

THE CK6.KEtF.Si 201 

15?, Rur-Ik \Ufi) nnct Ntikllttfai hadtk { right) _ 

slashing from left !o right; the blade may be "feathered;" (turned ovtr) 
and another slash made from right to left (Fig. 159), but only if ihe 
firsi one fails to do [he job, But it is the thrust which the ftugis and 
Makassarese rely must heavily upon. There are some peculiarities. 
The blade of the Hugis badik is ihimier than that of the Makassarese 
type [F'lg. 137), The laftec therefore must be thrust with its blade flat if 
let ha I penetration is to be achieved in rib areas; other areas of the 
victim's anatomy do not require this preposition! rig, but Makassarese 
knife fighters generally use flat-blade tactics,, and seek full penetration 
of the blade. The Bugis, on the other hand, pinch grip the blade more 
often than do the Makassarese, with the ringers just below the place 
where the handle joins ihr blade. The thrust may be brought to pene¬ 
tration in a vertical or flat entry, to the depth of the pinch grip. Lethal 
penetration in selected vital anatomical targets can be surely made with 
less tiian three inches of the blade. 


I . Slashing LK<j- iWrji from 
left to right and 

turning the blade to slash 
again Uttiow). 



J. E. Jasper reported lhat the ,, Buginoe consider it a shame when 
a man dies without having his kris } his *bralhc-r r with him.' 11 Whether 
or roi J asper mistook the badik ibr liter Celebes kris is unimportant, lor 
that mental temperament extends equally to both weapons. The kris 
is more commonly called a sek in the Celebes; its sheath is known as 
a Atii.* A variety of patterns are to br found but nowhere in the abun¬ 
dance of those found on Java. r fhc parang, in the Celebes, is, like its 
Javanese counterpart, a single-edged cleaver instrument and is known 
as htiujig ur even as a jftawcfatr {Fig. 160).’ 

5 “ikt riland Bawtan «n aitn bowoners," Tijdttknji ww hrl BmnnUmdstk Btfimtr, 

31 (fttH), 

H. An in (creating tut unproven traditional stary is told which .iucmpu to explain 
ihe naming nf the (rttntry, and that nimr'i relation with tlie km, A native, upon 
being IjunliOnnJ by & Dutchman in whal perhaps was very broken Indurtesjacil as 
lu vrhai live lumv of the country was, rnminduTiiuod Else .query by thinking ii was 
utinj; the name oT(he weapon ba was wearing, and replied, etlt-ltii (Atm and sheath). 
This mu in forma lion ww q widely transferred by the Dutchman throughoui ibe Dutch 
colony and bet-arm: the Standard name Sulawesi fCele-be*), 

7, ' Eliis terminology, for some scholars, suggests the influence of the Borneo Dayak 
upon ihe culture qf ihe Celebes. Maudm »[ the name of the typical Dayak. long- 
bLaded knife. 


Neither the Hngis nor t3u - Makassarese employ the blowpipe;, but 
k, Kennedy says thai they have heard of its use in early limes. 4 It was 
known as the sapttru by the earliest seitiers of the Makassar area. 

Racial prides create differences, and pentjak-nlat in the Celebes is an 
outstanding example of this fact, Various special types exist but the 
Hug-is and the Makassarese give evidence of the most systematic ap¬ 
proaches Generally the southwestern Celebes area ptntjak-nlai is called 
“.oVdf Makassar" and includes the karena uatjang style which name 
implies “i» perform like a tiger,' This style is rrlaErd with great affinity 
to kuntaa and is directly under Chinese guidance and organization, tapi; 
ritet is a highly secret form revealed only to chosen experts in srli'-defr-pse 
and specializes in countering rear sneak attacks (common in Makassar). 
Experts in the Tapu system are reported to he supersensitive and must 
not hr touched ironi the rear or while asleep as the consequent reactions 
produced will be disastrous to the one disturbing them. Dr, Hewai 
(Daeng) is a tapij expert, His very name implies “balance" and his 
reactions arc skillful and made with unbelievable speed, The mantja 
tgnadja is u southern Celebes pentjak*tilal system which is based on a 
95 to 5 percent ratio of foot-to-hand techniques. It is suspected that it 
has Mrnangkabau routs {see Chapter 5, p. 124, for in dealing with 
weapons it uses the terms guba for the handle of any knife and sarvng 
for its sheath, both common words in Mermngkuhau vocabulary.* 
IPS I see p. 50), the national Muslim pm()ak-iilai organization, has a 
branch in Makassar which perpetuates combative traditions fur the 
Bllgis and Makassarese. 

Weapons used for all Bugis-Makassarese fvntjak-silat include all the 
standard types normally associated with the combative form, but the 
tjabang, the pisati , and parang {bcTnng} arr used with extraordinary dex¬ 
terity and skill, bngis and Makassarese ptntjnk-silal forms take into con¬ 
sideration ,Lnd give heavy emphasis to the USe of their special weapon, 
the badik. Much of the arm and hand, movement prartired empty 
banded can instantly be converted to knife ihrust-and-slash actions by 
simply picking up such a weapon. Sri a p-1 h r List action while on the move 
and turning of the body into Li punch which is '‘screwed inln" thr target 
are characteristic of most styles, and, too, arc adaptable to ihc knife, 
Hands, held open or closed as a list, are often modified by a pinching 
action of the fingers which relates to the Bugis (and sometimes the 
Makassarese} habit nf holding the kad\k with a pinch grip, Considerable 
practice is mude with one forearm outer surface in a blocking role while 
the other arm. strikes a blow or delivers a knife to the target; the two 
motions are simultaneous Bug IS p<ntjak~Sll(it patterns Contain less than 
15 percent teg actions, and those which are used are more linearly 

8. Bikiii-.grnphy of fndur\t urn f'enpto and Cult rite a (New Haven: Ya3r University l , rai, 
1945 }, 

9. Mikwsjr words are batnrtt anti fcHtgugultt fur ihi-aih ami hsnillr sniper lively 


oriented shin circular in nature; simple forward-stepping movement is„ 
of course, rArmpi, as it is definitely circular. The horse-riding stance 
employed, suggests Chinese influence, 

■ Runts o in Makassar 

The fact that Chinese fighting-art tactics have had positive influences 
upon ptntjak-fjiat in she Makassar urea has already been alluded to and 
specific evidences named- One of" the hest organised, kuntao systems in 
Makassar is perhaps a synthesis form. Headed by master teacher Lie 
Tjien Jan, the product is perhaps largely an extension of Lie's id™ 
over (he course of his mure than seventy years. Lie is a visionary who 
approaches modern-day kuntao with a broadmindedness unbecoming to 
its tradition. The result has been, however, vitality and an ensured con¬ 
tinuation of classical combative ideas strung on a network of modern 
needs. By interjecting his fine personality, Lie wins students. 

To begin with, Lie has named his obviously kmlao form as a type of 
penljak-silai. Ktbudajain Ilmu Silal Indonesia is the name of the organ¬ 
ization and the fighting form. Little has changed insofar as Lr-n/tw 
mechanics and scope arc concerned, The system is largely one based on 
hand and arm tactics; kicking methods arc minimal. Kicks arc either 
preparatory to a turn or made immediately alter one is completed. 
Parrying or blocking (minimal) methods bring the defender into posi¬ 
tions from which quick ripostes can be launched. The open hand is 
almost always used i« elfett the parries; it is also used to catch and cover 
iFig. 16la';. The blocking hand is usually supported by the free hand. 
Stances are midline and movements are made from scmicruudi posi¬ 
tions with leel (hat are slid over the terrain, lead foot turned slightly 
inward. The double-weighting principle is used, Turning for evasion is 
always made in a counterclockwise direction. The usual weapons of 
kuntao are studied, and the long-bladed, single-edged sword I'ilatn is the 
core weapon- Additionally, the standard wcapyns of p?ntjak-.\tiul have 
been mastered. Most skill is demonstrated wiih the staff [loja), the 
tjabang [one niie inverted}, and the pafang ibening), The stalT is used 
wish hide hand sliding; the enemy's shin is tine favorite target. A two- 
bladed terror is found in the technique ul using a parang in each hand. 
Fast swinging in circular and elliptical patterns makes the style for¬ 
midable (t>—d}. 

Tjip Pho Liang Kie is another aeventyish koniun master teacher resid¬ 
ing in Makassar who teaches a reliable combative form- Hid system 
remains unnamed acid he has few students because of his rigid adherence 
to traditional discipline. Kic takes delight in speaking about the special 
kuntao weapon, the ftiaa- In this system it kniks like soirie monstrous 
metal insect. A thumb-flicking action is added to the normal arm-hand 
delivery action to increase momentum The .system also makes use of 
the hui'lhtf, a whiplike device, It is a sharpened metal piece attached 


W (d) 

IGL. T«'hlitr|Li« tiflbmi Si Jill -i u’.n!, j--, tuf M akaiiir, (aj ilic opt-i i-iuwd pairy* 

(b_; the toot (e) I he tjat>an£, and (-d) the pat&nj;. 


Makinsar I'uifina 1 weapons* 



to the end of a one-yard cord length, doth of these strange weapon* 
take many year* iu master {Fig, 162). The if of the six-foot length, 
is held al thr center with a narrow grip; if only five icet long, it h 
gripped at the end with a spaced grip, 

Another system, name unknown, lost its Founder or leading master 
teachrr without warning. Because of the lack of technical inspiration 
and guidance, the system lost all of its students but one, Tong Hong 
Liong, Tong is a youth whose powerful body may well re-establish the 
almost extinct system,. Quite able to demonstrate the effect of the tactics 
of the style, Tong is enthusiastic over his assumed responsibility. The 
system is not precisely identifiable, but appears, to have us main roots in 
khf, (Canton) kuntaa, It features a conglomeration of technical entities, 
such as straight-line stepping with thr lead foot not turned inward, 
cross-stepping actions with waist-level origins for ihr punching arm- 
fast, blocking by applying a raised elbow, assist to the blocking arm, 
defending middle or low areas, by supporting it with the free hand, 
and many other* (Fig. 163}. Kicking tactics are usually of the frontal 
snap-kirk variety, especially made after completion of a pivotal action ; 
(he lea-d arm and hand deliver an open-handed chopping blow simnl- 
tancons with the kick. Both open and closed hands are applied. 

208 Weapons and fIGKTINQ ARTS 


■ BuJhu 

The Bajau of the Celebes are a partly boat-dwelling, partly sedentary 
shore people. The complexity of their origin, dispersions* and relations 
to other Bajau in other areas or the Indonesian Archipelago has made 
for Utile concerted agreement among scholars. Even, their name carries 
with it a confusing multiplicity of ctmnotatinOL 111 ' The Javanese know 
the Baja Li ai lining (fitting) kdmh ang, or "floating nr drifting people"; I hr 
Bugis speak of them as waju, or "men that go in troops/ 1 while the 
Makassarese know them as TiirjjcTic, meaning "water people." 

By one tradition the origin ofllLtf Celebes Bajau 15 placed in the south- 
western peninsula, a possibility Substantiated by the fact that the Baja it 
are almost always found in and around the Bugis and Makassarese set¬ 
tlement areas; the soitthwestern peninsula has tong been the stronghold 
of the latter, Most of the nomadic boat-dwelling Bajau are found ori (he 
remote coast of the eastern Celebes peninsula, There, hi that sparsely 
inhabited and unexplored cul-dc-sac, which hns in former times been 
ranged over by restless tribes with headhunting pastimes* the- nomadic 
Bajau have succeeded in plying the oflshorr waters and, in somr cases, 
in establishing shore camps. Along the Gulf of Bone through the straits 
of Tiara and Bulling, to the island of Wowoni, and into Kcndari 
Bay, as well as northward to the Salabangka Islands and beyond to 
Tomori Bay, the Bajau boat dweller* congregate. There, in the Kendaci 
Hay area, the focal point of southeastern Celebes trade, Bugis .md 
Makassarese traders would anchor a safe distance offshore and deal 
with the Bajau. In 1B2G the l J rtnce of Bone attempted to establish a 
colony at Kendari, hut the hostility of thr inland tribes ofToradja head¬ 
hunters drove the Bugis out; she sedentary Bajau followed them. Only 
tile nomadic Bajau remained, a fact which s[leaks well of their defensive 
abilities and relations with the inland h rad hunters. 

f in the northern coastal areas of the Celebes, in addition to Bajau 
areas near Manndo, they live west of Kuandang Buy and on the east 
shore of Dortdo Bay near the settlement of Tolitoli, always in concert 
with the prosperous Bugis, who control those areas. Their ability to 
outlast the encroachment* of the aggressive Muslim Molucca 11 prince¬ 
dom of the Halmahera pirates also establishes the fact that they are 
possessed of a martial spirit, though defensive, nevertheless effective. 
They, like (hr Bajau on Bachan in the Moluccas who were the first 
people lo settle on the north roast of the Obi Islands and constantly 

30, Bnjvui , ft atm, ftqju flsj.v , Bncljtf), Wajv, Wnju • W^i} 0 1 , arc nil spiling! 

referring tc» ih^sf people. J, C, Ecnk [f)t Voikin can'hck Indti, Amsterdam. 

Elsevier, I52L) IKH£H lhfil the teem Bn|ack, Id (he MiIHII ji r* liipeldftu. ix a jpinerir 
runw for harmless fisherman nomads. In the west, on the contrary,. J&hn CJr^wfurd 
[Hiitiry J h* indum Anhipthge. EtBnburgli, 1020) imjilte* it as synonymciur with Use 
Javanem fen- "pirate" (fin/ajj}, anil J. fi, Rsedtf] [Dr nftirjGra iTWihnngt raisf/l tUfi(Jun 
Srltirti tit Papua, like Hague: Muttniu NijJsofF, !.08t;i reports tin- word Bajau «> meant 
"pi rale'" in tfor Da yak language, 


under piratical attack by the raiders out of Tobelo and Galcta, or tire 
Bajau on the northeastern coast of Borneo who stood in the Face ofSulu 
Archipelago Philippine) pirates, are fearless lighters when put to the 

The reports of timidity, Such a£ that made by J. X. VuSi'tiiier in lfl3£ 
who described them as . . industrious franlc and honest pCOplt . - * 
the nomadic Bajau arc distinguished by their good nature! but also by 
their great timidity „ , .. j” 53 should not be construed as a personal char¬ 
acteristic which implies their inability to light. Rather it should be sfieit 
as it is, an intrinsic part of the conduct of nomadic peoples who arc gen¬ 
erally shy of other societies because they choose to be so. Like the Tar¬ 
tars iri Asia who shill their tents Icj enjoy perpetual good Weather, the 
boat-dwelling Bajau move iheir boats lo the leeward for the sake of firm 

1-lajau, chiefly sedentary, are (bund throughout the Lesser SLindas, 
chose islands east of Lombok which were once under Makassarese rule 
in the seventeenth century when Gowa was a maritime power- As the 
Bugls replaced the Makassarese hold in those areas by political and 
economic dominance, I hr Bajau remained. Oil Surtlbawa, Flores, and 
Adonara iheir small kampQng may hr seen alongside those of the ELigis. 
There are, however, no Bajau on Samba and Timor- What roles these 
highly traveled nomads and sedentary Bajau have played ill the trans¬ 
ference of weapons and combative systems can only be Speculated ur'i 
and possibly proven by futher investigations. 

Among Madurese, who are seafarers without peer, E. F, Jochim 
learned thal the Hujau were highly respected as outstanding swimmers 
and divers with the ability to dive to great depths. 3! The Madurese 
insist that the Bajau possess "gil]s. v Bajau children, soon after birth, 
according to R. Kennedy's /h'WEtijrrrj^Ajs are chucked into the sea and 
soon learn to swim like a fish. They are also taught how to handle boats 
at an early age. Those at Kendari Bay observed by Vosmaer were 
trained in the water Life at an early age and also engaged in daily prac¬ 
tice of throwing spears and harpoons in the content of combative 

The fish spear and fish harpoon are implements common to all sea 
nomads- Sophcr writes in Sea Nomads: 

The use of the fishing spear diminishes in importance nn the mar¬ 
gins of the Indonesian culture area, within which ihr lance was 
formerly the characteristic weapon used in warfare. . . , The par¬ 
ticular forms of hunting weapons used by the sea itomad-s for 

1 L btxhrijvirig van /.usEf-OoPldijk RrhinTrLtiiCHl vnn t>3cbel F ” Virfitinrfe- 

/jRjjiM tux ktt Ihi/u.-joiivA Ueiurttickap ran A uni ten eit Wtttrut htippm, 17 I 183! I . 

t It 1 . "8™ hrijs lug \ an den Sapoedi Aet h ipt l,' ' Tijdsihr^t w»r Iwfixhf Limit- en 

ftttntuiA, 36 ■llBSSh 

THE cet-EBE5 211 

catching fish ns compared in the weapon* so used by cultures 
marginal to die Indonesian area clearly indicate that in this 
respect the sea nomad trait is one that is characteristic of aborig¬ 
inal Indonesian culture, 

The Bajau special taed in spear (harpoon im pie me pits- Forms of those 
weapons include the single-pronged spear, both barbed and unbarbed, 
the trident spear, and the trident harpoon (Fig. IfiT), 11 The points of 
these weapons generally curve inward a hit, of which at least two have 
pronounced barbs on the inner surfaces Shafts may be of bamboo or 
nib eng wood, Points may be wood or iron. When In pursuit of the Riant 
ray rJt^zn pari), ihe metal spear and harpoon heads arr some fifteen 
inches- in length and are commonly employed or long bamboo shafts. 

1 he chase and catch of this, monstrous ray is Idled with considerable 
danger to the hunters, who know of the painful death caused by the 
lashing tail and poisonous caudal spine. Sometimes the caudal spine 
may be used to provide ,i point for a spear or dagger. 

Clearly, the import of the spear and harpoon in sea-nomad life is 
heightened by the fact that it was the primary device for use on land for 
hunting and for self-defense, Padtbruggc, speaking of (he Hajau, said; 

They were used from of old to have no other weapon hut a 
wooden ipear; but necessity has taught them to provide them¬ 
selves with shield, sward, and lances. Whether engaged in using 
the simple Malay-like Wigr\ the wooden or bamboo shaft with a 
sharpened end, or more complex spear-harpoon types, the Bajau deadly accuracy and can hardly be seen to miss a 
shot . li 

The Bajau are mostly Muslim oriented if of the sedentary type, but 
are more the “nominal Muslims/' in the ‘Tlikayat Abdullah ' of the 
Orang Laut ( ,a in that ", , , they do not attend to requirements or 
religion . . ."; the nomadic Bajau are usually not Muslim directed. On 
the whole, VnsTTiarr utiles ".. . . little violence or thieving ► . - among 
them." They have rarely been involved in piratical activities, lacking 
the nature, I lie technologic^! and organizational means by which to 
become successful pirates. Their occasional forays as pirates have been 
exaggerated by European writers. For exanple, F. H. van \ cnchucr 
writes that . , at one t ime in ihr early part of the nineteenth century 
when thr Sultans of ftulungan and Berau on the northeast coast of 

1:1, The multidtfliate i|»aiheatl la h’w romnvnii in Indonesian areas than it it in 
lihlia, Mduunt, and FtoJynewa, 

14. Motes ufl 674- 

15. The term is a p-nrrsc name a]jjilted by Malay's tn tbr sea liuniadi ur their 
descend Mil*, 


3fi4. Boj*U ipoin (birpooni) and ajpearticatls. 

165, The riwHtrp in Krcditi »iy[* iil&t. 

166, Thf ftn.ja'ij parang of Kendo, ri Jlylr 

Borneo were in league with Sulu* ilie Bajau cooperated in the piracies 
of the Sulu peoples [probably Samals] In such an extent that for the 
Dutch naval officers the terms Bajau and bajak [Javanese for "pirate"] 
beenm.e synonymous 11111 More often than not they themselves were the 
victims rather than the perpetrators of such acts. 

One ptnijaksilat form in which Bajau participate is the so-calicd Ken- 
diniri style centered in the city of that name- It is characterized by its use 
of cross-legged stances used for rapid turning-evasion (Pig. 165 •, and 
economy of displacement, It ]s a functional system for use in cramped 
quarters,, such as may t>r found on boats. In addition to the standard 
weapons of ptnljaksitai , this ECaulari style employs the Bajau parang 
1 Fig. lf)6}„ arid of course„ the spear (harptxHH I, 

16. "Dr Barljcu’i," TijikcfiTift sets het Kminkiijk* AaarJnjktitmJ rf ? [!0B3h 


■ ToraidjEi 

The Bugis and Makassarese traders had (lie unfortunate firsthand ex¬ 
perience of being victims of the hinterland Toradja groups which made 
headhunting their pastime, This, plus tribal raids involving neutral 
parties such as the Bugis and Makassarese, for many years right down 
to the present day, has kepi foreign or outside encroachments on Tora- 
rlja lands to a minimum. The origin of the Tor: Klja is as wispy and 
legendary as are all the trad it tons surrounding the peoples of the Cele¬ 
bes; their customs and rituals are shrouded in the ancient pa$t. ,T 

To radj a weapons and ii gluing techniques have become significant in 
that they have been deterrents ter policies rjf expansionist control. Prior 
to such activities of foreign elements, the Toradja fought among them¬ 
selves and had ample opportunity to develop effective styles. When the 
fiugis anil Makassarese Came It] the Keudu]! Kav area in the southeast¬ 
ern peninsular portion of the Ceiettes, they came to do trade with die 
nomadic Bajaii. There they encountered the warlike Toradja, who in 
ah fairness to that spirit, must have simply been provoked into defensive 
action against ills, factual or imagined, they saw as concomitanis with 
Hugis and Makassarese intervention. Years later, the Dutch would also 
feel the combative reality of the Toradja, 

Strangely enough, only the nomadic Bajait had successful re I at in us 
With Ult Toradja and were apparently well respected by the latter, 
Fadtbrugge, In his notes of 1674 , comments about the "unfriendly 
natives" of eastern tribes of Toradja headhunters, such as the To Ijji- 
nang on the south shore of Ton ini Bay and the neighboring In Wan a. 
Their customs included the colorful ceremony tjf honoring successful 
hunters of enemy heads with elaborate head kerchiefs and other orna- 
ments dyed yellow and red with natural dyestuffs. 1 * It was the common 
knowledge by outsiders of this proceeding that discmiragrd all but the 
Bajau from occupying Toradja lands, (.inly the "mobile Iktjau" dared 
to touch upon and have intercourse with the wild tribes. N’oi all went 
smoothly, however, for Padtbruggc records that some headhunter* tlid 
"attack and kill them." 

Throughout the large area encompassed by Toradja culture : t\- 
tetiding from the midsouthern and western peninsula around the central 
area tliat borders the Bay of Bone on the north into the even, more in¬ 
hospitable southeastern peninsula), the knife is a secondary weapon. 
Nevertheless, at is an important one. The terminology surrounding the 
identification of blade styles is vast. The Toradja fighting man's long 

17, American (Jr, Irene RcIktSs is [OThajH Lite !uii , eeli.'si lUitliviilv -on Tflr&dja cul¬ 
ture Aiming her unpubiblird null's, gathered in her almost (cur vifi atny with (hew 
|}fM;p]ra, 9 saw wliat U perhaps the ITIOTt complete cwUfltljnn of SexL-nds, hem! cuher 
mvcstigntiwis nf‘To™3j a niltVlT^ irt the world. 

IIH. Similar : per hups related) practices arc fcnunrl among hrwlhimim jnrt cannihah 
of rionheTH I [alrnahera. and Phllippitii: Miadsnsu. 




lAbo bale-bale 


IG7. Kmvfs of Toradj*. LAMPAKAM 

EbB. IV- Tonurfjari Juu lalM, or "dual w," buHalo tmlr. 

knife is apparently patterned after (he pwartg. It is known in the Turu- 
djan language as Elir /dfnJ or sometimes paJe, but in the Kendarj Bay area 
it h called loloki. Only the labfi balance is directly designed for warfUrc. 
Thr ldb& bale-bait is for butchering slaughtered buffalo, the IM>6 tapang 
for chopping wood, and the piw'* or piso lampakm, for food. Yet all can, 
in times of emergency, be effective weapons (Fig. 167). 

Tire so-called buffalo knife used in killing that animal for ceremonies 
reveals its battlefield nature by its very name, (fua lalan, ur "dual use"; 
it serves well against animal or man (Fig, 168}, A long sword-type blade 
called ktitwang (see p.. 36) ** in Indonesian, is known as the ptrna r in 

pi, Afi^r [hi 1 I ltd ones tan (man, whicli in turn items Iforti the Chnvrsr pi -fAc-u. 

20. The kfltniinR i-v rummuft lu Irian ftaral,. MoluOH (Hilrmihira), and Tataud 


[6^. Tcirarij an uifs for jSumuT^ ujEkr/f jjtjtj , 

I>OKli t'AN i; KA 

170, l utii:) wl' Trjmljan jpe-ar blades. 

Toradjan, The special choppers or heavy meal-cleavcr-type knives 
talird parang ripaljqrfl or ubldluii art- stilt other blades found useful ill 
bailie (L’ig. 169) 

The spear is the Toradja favorite instrument uf death; it occupies a 
position of importance both in battle and in ceremony. The usual Indo¬ 
nesian term of tomhak is iiokt iu Toradjan. It is a practical weapon, but 
permits some decoration on the spear shaft which is further adorned 
with brilliant colors of dyed strips of buffalo hide and feather streamers. 
1 he ddfcf leptmg and the dakt k&dangan are war spears. Another, the dWfce 
patrgka. is purely cere martial 'Tig. 170). In the hands of the redoubtable 
Tnradja warrior, the spear was the weapon by which the enemy was 
most usually dispatched. Native skills with the spear are little short of 
marvelous: small animals and even lords can lie transfixed at twenty 
yards; a man at twice that distance. 

Carried in the rigln hand, paint upward, the point of the weapon is 
held slightly downward (similar to technique on Nias Island; &ce Chap¬ 
ter 3, p. 163;, The spear is given a pretoss impetus by a hopping step, 
left leg in the air (Fig. 171:. \ he delivery is a. one-legged jump onto the 
platform right fool. The left hand may be occupied with the shield, nr 
tambeng. This usually is a highly decorated defensive weapon that ran 
be made offensive for rinse infighting situations by the metal spikes 
which protrude front its outer surface (Fig, 172). In its tambnk form 
the narrow ends of the shield serve as haltering rams, All shields are 
designed fram wood, leather, or woven retan (rattan) on wooden 


171. Ttn-a.fljuri apisjvr tPthiiEque: live jjrrlc.Hj 
hopping iitppf with sfwnr pi mil dam, 


Blowpipes arc generally known in the Indonesian language as svmpit 
or lumpitan, in Totadjan they arc called tempi [Fig, 1731. Like the 
5 apum reported on lor the early Makassarese, they are quite short in 
overall length, ranging from twelve to fifteen inches. Bamboo is the 
usual material for the blowpipe tube. The sliver-dart projectile was 
tipper! at its bull end with a Ctmeuf banga Fiber (palm) to trap air blown 
into the tube and to give the needed force to project the dart. The busi¬ 
ness end of the dart is liber ally coated with tp&h , or poison ; 31 any target 
up to thirty yards is within range. All Toradja tribes used the blow* 
pipe as an instrument of war as did the Dayaks of Burn™ ( Javan and 
Sumatran tribes restrict it to hunting). W. W, Skcat and C. O, Blagden 
report that blowpipes used in Malaya were all introductory prototypes 
made by the Sakaa who perfected this weapon. Extended usage of the 
blowpipe in the archipelago is, to tFieir way of thinking, an imitation of 
the Sakai technique; the blowpipe as an independently developed wea¬ 
pon of the Celebes is at best improbable.” 

Alsu seen in the southern regions of the Celebes in which Toradja 
reside is thr limited use of small bows and arrows and Else strangest of all 
instruments, the fwdmpah (Fig. 174). It is reportedly a lethal warfare 
weapon. Fashioned of hardwood in boomerang shape, it ls different 
from the Australian type in that its body, which is flat, is terminated 
in tubular ends. The technique of using the pndimpak is today unknown. 

Pong Tiku (sometimes Fontiku, 1S46-I907), martyred hero of Ren- 
inpao, made skillful use of eight natural btnttng, or ’Touts," in directing 
the gallant defense of Toradja lands against the Dutch. Bom in the Pan- 
gall a area near Rentapao, Pong Tiku proved to be a most effective 
thorn in the side of Dutch interests lie bad vowed “never to surrender 
from the bottom of my leet to the tip of my head 1 ’ and was the main 
sourer of organized underground resistance. Finally captured by the 
Dutch, Pong Tiku was killed under (hr pretense that hr bad broken 
arrest after being permitted to bathe in jail. 

Pong ['[kefs standard weapons {Fig. 17S) were the spear, the iah6 y 
a rifle (Portuguese), and protective armor. His or “helmet, 11 

had iron projections in the shape of buffalo horns designed to deflect 
blows. His shield, the batuiang, was splendidly decorated- He wore a 
special j.fpN, or “betel nut pouch," fitted with a metal plate to deflect 
blows to his groin. His methods of combat were nf guerrilla nature. 
Sudden death pits ;dtig along trails the enemy grew to have confidence 
in using Ibr their supply lines) would appear overnight - at their deep 
bottoms were fixed deadly sharpened stakes of bamboo- The timk teda 
l“(a pump widi fumiflA' 1 ) was a special device used to spray irritant red 
pepper \lu 7 ntak) into the eyes of the invaders at close range. Toradja 
offkiafr F\ K. SaruEigLiJUi, T. Barung Doki, and T. Sr Sanungu, who in 

1 l. Produced hy l h<J forest people* fmm Aniraru loTicajm. 

22. Pagan Racej of thr Multi? PtnitHul* i \ -O rid (in : MUnUlit, l fJO&j. 



I 74. The fui/iimpaA, tech nit] nr 
few use unfc ntwn loctav. 

173. The Tond jnn 

liimpi {blHiwpjw'l 
Lklktl JUT jujn l‘lj (i.irt 

173. Pbnft Tiku'i we#print; |jii hia EpeaF and 
JOujAai (heimei), riflr. Ic iixH (Jung knife ;.and 
(d) balniana (ihieki}. 



THE tJbLtEhS 210 

Lhrir you L bs Served with Pong Tlku, recall [lie glory of hi* flX p3oi IB and 
demonstrate use of their fallen leader's personal weapons. 

One of the most unusual q uasieombali vcb in the archipelago ex ism in 
the Celebes. Originally native to the Mian and Pangall a areas, i: now 
centers on Remapao, Its formal name i.5 ssjeuba but it is occasionally 
called sfcMBAj or siiMPAK. Sisemba is a composite of two Torsdjan words 
which mean “to do it 1 ’ and “to kick by foot/' In its traditional form it 
was used as a mass defense which saw all able-bodied men of a kamprng 
joined in concerted effort 10 repel any invasion of their lands or rights. 
Often il was the means by which intcr-AampoA? arguments were sritled. 

SisfcHB.*. participants include hundreds of young men coupled by hand 
clasping. Ranks of lines consisting of two or more persons are formed 
[Fig. I 76 m, bj- Lines and ranks of opposing factions square oiT at one 
another in the middle of a level held, usually a rice paddy that has been 
fully harvested, still soft, muddy, slippery, and treacherously wet, thus 
making for dillicult footing, The object is to form lines and ranks in 
various combi nations of numbers of combatants which maneuver and 
dosr with opposing lines and tanks. Tactics include the surprise of 
numbers against a leswr manned line of defense, but often only equal or 
near-equal lines combat. The tines take many shapes, suds as V-forma- 
tions L inverted V-lbmiaiions, wedges, circular arcs (convex and con¬ 
cave), and the like as produced by imaginative thinking. A line once 
formed must remain a line with combatants clasping hands; normal 
arm linkage or special cross-handed linkage is also possible. Only die 
end man of each line has one hand and arm free, Upon coming into 
range the opposing forces kirk at one another in any style they wish, 
endeavoring to knock Oil E or down their velrcled targets, thus breaking 
the hne of the opposing force. Once a line is divided il is quickly qver- 
whelmcd by the kicking assault of the other tine which, by superiority 
of numbers, can maneuver to surround and defeat the stragglers, Any 
portion of the anatomy may be kicked as long as the hand grasp ts 
maintained- It lakes a great deal of coord in at ion to produce an effective 
assaull [or defense). Injuries are frequent, especially to facial areas. An 
individual combatant once downed is not allowed to be fallen upon by 
(hr opposing side; he may get up, however, and rejoin his own line. 
Fins is symbol!e, for in early days the fallen fue would be kicked into 
submission pr unconsciousness Tig, 176c, d|. 

The smaller lines, such as those composed of three to seven men, arc 
capable of amazing maneuver:!. One such is the use of centrifugal force 
to send the man on either end flying through the air, completely off the 
ground but still linked to his neighboring partner by a handclasp, in a 
great arc and crashing into the line of the opposing force. The com¬ 
batant in the air flails and kicks as he sails into the opponentT Lint, 
after which he is jerked back ill whip] ike fashion (O rejoin bis team mate's, 

S rs>: Hu a today is primarily a Toradja harvest-time festivity but the 
ardor of battle that once flavored it is revived as leant pang meets kam- 



pvng, and occasionally tempers rise. 23 The event is a long, drawn-out 
:iFfair lusting several hours rath day lor wrelts on end, Victory in l he 
combative sense was decided in iher-.irly day's by the reduction in num¬ 
bers (due to injuries) or the voluntary resignation of die foe. Today’s 
sqemba is decided simply by the recognition, of superiority of technique 
which liecomea apparent in the course of the light, No judges arc re¬ 
quired but the older villagers act in supervisory capacities to sec that 
all runs fairly. 

Aside (Venn &ISEMBA the Turadja have no grappling qr boxing- com¬ 
bative form in their culture. No penijdt-siiat or tufflotf exists as an or¬ 
ganized practice activity here. 

■ Mlnahasa Inhabitants 

The precise origin O.F the Minahasa is clouded by I hr lack of prrciir 
historical evidence concerning their culture. Hetty Palm speculates; 

It ts possible that a part of them originate from the northern 
situated islands. . . The Sail gibe and la Laud Islands form the 
connection with the la tier group [Philippines] of islands, They 
probably formed the bridge across which the few mammalia 
entered the Celebes. , . . This is probably also the road which 
man has taken when he entered the Celebes. 14 

Still earlier reports like those by Padtbrugge in the seventeenth cen¬ 
tury indicate that lire Minahasa was occupied by various tribes whose 
culture was to be compared with that of the Borneo Dayafci, the Nias, 
and the Naga of Assam. A modern study of many Minahssan objects of 
an does little to further knowledge about their origin; they are known 
to be relatively modern and ofliltle help. Metal qr oilier materia Is from 
which prehistoric artifacts may have been made have not yet been dis¬ 
covered;, while other Ibrms of materials less resistant to decay natural]y 
are totally absent. FranCiSCu Combos, writing in the seventeenth Cen¬ 
tury, suggests that the Mindanao (Philippine) Lutan tribes of warlike 
sea nomads had a Ternatan (Moluccan) origin, 13 this thesis is not 
validated by F. Valenti]n and other later sources. But the great simi¬ 
larity that exists between the weapons and combative employments of 
the southern Mindanao peoples, those on Talaud Island, and the Mo¬ 
luccas, and those of the Minaha&a, appears to support Combes. 

The fighting art maKZa nf Butrin Island, which uses a single stick 
{sometimes sharpened at one or both ends), bears some technical simi- 

il Thi* August 1967 smc-tuiA m?khn in Rflilipan mw rival kamfitmg fru l:im wtm:li 
ricHiaiuicd .military Ulli polic* intwveiltldtl. 

2+. Aw tint ArleftJw Manta* (Bandung, 1958), 

25. Hu term sir 1st i u.tcu d* Mindmau (Madrid. W. E. Retaiu and F. Fuu-lls, LB97), 


laritics to the use of what is ended tabah in the Philippines (MacLan! 
and ilic stick-fighting style found on Haruku Island ip the Moluccas 
:sd'e Chapter 7, p. 235). Hu- lalaud Islanders show a preference 
for the kftiwwtg, the tpngkat, or "dtiblikc devices.'" the ranjau, or "poi¬ 
soned ground Makes,' 1 which use feurfrr (poison) of a secret formula, and 
will require special investigations before positive relations can be stated. 

Foreign higlt-cubure influence from Temate to the Minahasa is un- 
deniable, and Islam was brought to the tribes there by 
from Tcrnalc. 31 David Sophcr notes in Sea Nomadi: 

Before the Dutch intensified their control of L'ernate, at about 
the Lime til' these reports [1667], Eire Tern al a ns had been politi¬ 
cally dominant on the Minahasan Coast, in the Sang I he and 
Talaud Islands, am! at points on the southern Mitidanan coast 
around the Gulf of Davao, as well as in many islands to the 
south of the Moluccas as far as Sofor in ihr l^esscr Snuda arc. 
The northern Celebes-Mo!net:as approach to southern Min¬ 
danao is ati old one in culture-historical terms, which has re¬ 
peatedly carried culture influences northward. Islam, thus, 
could hair entered Mindanao by this route, as early as its intro¬ 
duction front Borneo Da the Sulu Archipelago. 

Legend tells pfLiimiimi'ijl, rhe ancestress of the Mrrtabasa. Born from 
a Stone that had been washed by tire sea and shone upon by the sun, 
Lumimii’tJt grew to maturity arid was impregnated by tlie west wind 
to produce Toar. Not knowing that she was his mother, Toar married 
Lumimn'ui and they begot many children 
.A great many iribcs came to inhabit the chiefly because of 
this union In the northeast, the Tonsifas; in the south and southwest, 
the Toniemboans; in the northwest, the Tom bolus; in (lie southwest, 
the Tonsawangs; in the south and southeast, the Rataham, and on ihr 
northwest coast, the Hanliks- Their origins can lit' traced with some 
degree of accuracy. I'hc Tonsawangs have taken, up Mongtmdous de¬ 
ments, legend stating that they originated from the islands of Maju and 
Tifore situated between Halm a hern and the Celebes. The BanuLs came 
from, liulaatlg; Uielr language is related to the Sang rhe-Ta laud, 

I he diversity produced differences precipitated In combative fashion. 
Legend says that the original Minahasan tribes underwent a division at 
a big stone, the ILfffa firuwtiffiti ne ctttpu&g, or tlic "Stone Throne of [lie 
Ancestors ' Still another name is spoken by Miuahasan inhabitants, 
who know the Stone as H'rjfn pmeuttengMi, nr the "Stone When- Division 
Was Made " flic huge boulder may lie seen today on the slope of the 
Tondcrukail. Its surface, covered with crude line drawings, may hold 

26 . Hujuk living «n thf Mipahaai have fetugu litlej-fuj leuer hdaijmrm li- H -ir|rr* but use 
the MuLu.ic.i;i l«iin ytgpgu loi tin; mpr, nic U'.idler 

flit. CIULtOJES 223 

combative The god oTMuntu Unui is said to have made 

the crude artv^'ork;, producing a scratch at “every delermiuation,' 1 with 
3 1 is. siick. Sticks and clubs arc essential weapons ofthe Minahasan tribes 
fas [hey are in almost all Mo! ocean areas}. 

Minahasan houses offered protection from hostile attacks. Perched 
on ixjIcs some nine to twelve feet high,, many of the houses were add i lion - 
.illy bn tit over the surface uf takes. Each house used decorations in the 
Ebrm of' hauling siring ul 'anon and babmisa jaws. ?T Human heads, tro¬ 
phies of the hunt, hung on mof pieces, but since that custom is now a 
rarity, the woodcarving representing a human head to be seen situated 
on each house is symbolic of the old custom; it is sometimes even today 
ornamented with lulls of human, hair and small pieces of human skull. 

Various ceremonies punctuated Minaharan lives. After the birth of a 
male child, ihr parents were accompanied by a priestess to a watering 
place where the newborn baby would undergo a specific ritual. Then 
a shiim light wm Staged, with the father bring made la defend himscll 
with Sticks against the “attacks" r of villagers, Hr was ambushed from 
predetermined spots along his route with slicks and clubs- Taking the 
child in his arms, the father started from his house lo the village square 
carrying a bundle of Slicks under his left armpit. In hot pursuit came the 
“enemy."' On arrival at ihe square he trotted proudly around lhe 
tunwim'o, all the while clirowing sticks at Ins pursuers. When his supply 
of sticks was cnhalisted he retreated, shouting out fierce war cries in 
defiance. The Eight terminated, a pig was killed, the liver inspected by 
a tribal expert, and the future of the newborn son was evaluated, The 
ritual was rlim.ixrri by a splendid least. By this process of sham lighting, 
combative si irk techniques were born and the spirit of combat was 
thought In be instilled in the new son; the boy would grow up to be a 
strong warrior and defender of his family and village, 

j. A. 1. Schwartz lists in his Tonic; mbua os dictionary 1'mttmboam- 
NedFrinnikth [Voprdsnbwk, Leiden, 19GB) a verb for casting a copper 
stalf-knob rtui'.ukadr U is this knob which adorns many of the Minahasttn 
ceremonial stick and staff weapons. Hetty Palm [Ancient Ail } has re- 
ported on the ancient art of Minahasa and has described ike ’'Mina- 
hasan Priestly Staff” knob as made of copper or bmnr.c " . . , with a 
double face mounted on a wooden .stali. ' It is the weapon which 
Lnmmm’ut carried on her descent from Mount Saputan to the plains. 

In the colorful feasLs whirli honored warrior^** thrust- whn were 
economically able to serve as hosts and who bad additionally lived long 
enough to look back on their attendance at a great number of these 
events were given, as a token of their position, the sineka’dan, which 

27, Other nu-jtali lliic cultures, surh .as in Flures anil uf I hi >■ Sii’ihm Tofadja, exhibit 
i h« same pnciia, 

2ft. I'L'iLsK hqtfd, as weLI :■» atlcndcd, ihcrtutd tribal m1 1 ic-v .mtl fjiVL 1 individuals 
concerned added auum. 


!*a]m describes as 11 . , . the same wooden staff with t}ie bronze knob in 
the form of a, l^nuiSi head," Hindu influence is absent here. The 
designs are more akin to Melanesian and Polynesian objects it] that both 
faces are identical,) The meaning of the double and Homriimrs thrcc- 
hraded knobs is not known but ii may have some connection with a 
genealogical assumption of leadership; it may also be a fertility sym!»ol, 

EJurirg |hr feajU (hr warriors wore brightly colored sashc- 5 24 and a 
headdress consisting of gaudy feathers from. birds of paradise and par¬ 
rots The headmen wore large bats topped by honibiil devices. Their 
symbolic prut agonists wore European helmets. A bizarre war dance 
followed and the warriors were incited to a frenzy by a priestess. Tbc 
warriors 1 favorite emblems for these occasions were metal spirals called 
luring; like painting of the body, these decorations were reserved fur 

On the tearuga, the stone urns with a roof-shaped Eid, arc various 
carved weapons which tell of past combative ideas. Most common is the 
stick and staff. One watnga made by the Tombulu tribe at Taraiara 
shows the figure of a man holding a sword in Elis raised right hand and 
a human head tucked under his left armpit. The sword blade is simitar 
to ihat of the Talaud warriors, 

Minahasan objects existing luday arc not particularly old, Metal or 
Other objects from prehistoric limes have rot been found LH abundance 
by excavations But it Is generally known that forging was little under¬ 
stood. Generally* weapons and the methods of using them have been 
a transplant process, and great similarities are i« be seen with Mu Lucca n 
and li aland combative weapons and employment? 

European roniaci with Nfirvahasa was established in the sisicenth 
century. The Fortuguest* Diego de Magelhaes visited there in 1563; in 
lb23 Si mao d' Abreu visited Matiadu. European weapons had a tre¬ 
mendous impact* and Palm gives a most informative and accurate 
destripLiun of Minahasan weapons after European influences bad taken 
hold of the northern Celebes, He writes in Ancient Art: 

Further all sort* al arms, fur war was part of the old cultural pat¬ 
tern. However, they also served as a show* for love of display was 
also a trail of the old Minahasan civilization. They were In the 
possession oi metal helmets j£r| and cuirassr* of European 
origin: most of them dale back from the 17th century They were 
>i part of the equipment of the champions. Further there were 
European swords and other weapons. The Minahasan warrior 
furthci possessed a sword* so similar to that of the 5uhi Islands 
that ll is nut to lie distinguished from it. Perhaps this weapon was 
no lubrication of their own, but ft was imported from the abuVtr^ 
mentioned islands. The same is probable also of force with the 

2?. Called fialala in M Jiuihasan.* the word Es derived from the (jujarali word palnlti. 

THE CbbbBbS 225 

narrow shields of brass, which show a remark,!hie resemblance 
with the Tematan specimens.. Of own fabrication were the 
plaited armors, which are also in «sr r he where in Indonesia. 
Among these was a helmet, also plaited., and covered with resin 
to strengthen It- The Mi nab as an la rices were sometimes of ebony, 
decorated with wood carvings provided with an. iron point. 
These too were more show-pieces than hattle arms. Among the 
most precious pieces of inventory were further Chinese ceramics, 
bronze gongs and (hr already mentioned copper or brotuc 
knobs of staffs. 




Finishing strokes on them l shall hail t 
with all the weight of my cudgel. 

Out of them guts S shall tear t and 
scatter them here , there, everywhere. 


■ Background 

Known to Westerners as the Spice Islands, the Moluccas (Maluku) as 
they arc properly called, art- a large group of islands lying between tile 
Celebes and West Mew Guinea. The principal individual islands are 
Halmaliera, Tidore, and Ternate in the north; Oram, Amlxin, and 
Eiuru in (lie central portion, and Tanimbar to the south. The center of 
aboriginal comljatives revolves about f 'eratn, Ambon* and Burn. 

Ceram and the central Moluccan areas, according to history , 1 were 
originally settled by two tribes,, the Alunc and the Waimalc. The Alune 
perhaps came hom Runt asoal-Ririiig. Ait agrarian peopEc, they are 
short of Stature, round faced, ol slight build, and have Straight hair, 
They clothe themselves in only brrcchckiths. The WaimaJe arc thought 
to have tome from Honitetu, Ahiolo, and War aiding. They arc tall men 
•with kinky hair, high-bridged noses, and are hunters Though these 
two tribes meet often, they are not particularly friendly to each Other. 

The first ancestor of Ceram, according in Abu Hakar Nflhunia.ruri V 
of Fulfilu, was Pati Ibrahim Rupesi, who arrived from Gilgidjah, 
Malabar, India. He arrived at Suoku and established his authority, 
home time later he built fjtl .Ambon the city of Scid , 3 Kkiihtua, a pi test, 
was bis bodyguard. A man named SaEiulian, an adventurer whose hair 
on his arms wal 11 as hard as thorns, - ' carnc by raft to the area ftlld sent Kalhcua In investigate. The two men made a vow ofbroth- 

1. prolrtuor M. Mansii ufAiahtm prnviitrd I he anllirnr wilh Maliieran IiuEiiik data.. 

2. According m Rajah Nukuhehe, the current ruler (IJJfiflJ on Ambon, the 
"v'Ltl" mearll furring, the heavy.blgdect knife at> fismuirm in Endorii'sla. 'I he ulLife 
W 4 M mi named bwCuun . 1 l hn- peopte fouylit well util 11 (lie parang and Carried. uUt ihcic 
head burning and cannchalwn nluali by use el u. 


erhood by LhriJsLmg spears in La the ground 40 symbols of their pact. 11 
E>aliulian w?4 taken to Rupesi, who gave lii itl lodging for the ni S hi. A 
female servant caught the eye of Sahutian and hr lell madly in love with 
her, Kaihtua, however, advised that hr Forget her and choose instead 
Rupee's daughter. The mighty Sahutian had grown in Rupesl's favor, 
hill I hr coming marriage was conditioned OI 1 the fact that Sahutian 
would fim have to slay B&ikole, a fearless pirate from Tidore. 

Rnikotc was a legendary warrior who was reported to be able to leap 
Like a bird and to deflect any kind of blow during a fight. Ekiikole was 
greatly feared by Rupesi because the lormer had made it known I hat he 
wanted tn Conquer SeLd. H;iikolr accepted SfthUtian’s challenge, send¬ 
ing word to Roped from Tidore by mrn “who could walk on water." 
The battle was to take place on the bcticb at Nanuiharic. 

On tin day of the battle Ka theua stood behind Sahutian and coached 
him. It opened with flattery parumpakati , as was the custom, to decide 
who would be the first to initiate attack- 4 fi fell to Raikote and he re¬ 
sponded with three spear thrusts, only to miss all three because of 
Sahutian's agility. Sahutian took his turn, missed twice, but lor his 
third attempt changed his tactics- Holding a spear in his left hand, he 
unsheathed his long knife with his right. Then Sa hi it inn tossed the 
spear accurately enough to make Ratkole dodge—right into the big, 
sharp knife blade. Baikole was decapitated. His supporters fled into the 
sea and disappeared. Sahutian married Rupee's daughter, 6 and Rupesi 
took Sahntian as a son r 

Legend ECU's of three men and one woman who came front west 
Cera m to be t he fi rsl settlers at M u la 1 £i h Ambon T1 lc men were Le I mwe „ 
Latunama, and Ayutano. The woman was named Siiawani. [jcifttese 
was made king of a village at Mula’a. Ayutano became a >l kapitm" and 
■was called “the Ibur-cycd kapitai ' because of his use on the back of Itis 
head of two pieces of glass out of which rear vision for battlefield use was 
possible. His exploits in combat were prodigious. 

The king of Tiwawai was Mulibu, Ayutano and Mutihu marie war 
in which the latter sufferer! defeat and great losses; Ayutano had ac¬ 
counted for great numbers of the slain by the use of his mirror devices. 
Nobody could surprise him. His fame spread throughout the Moluccas 
and the hardy arnd brave appeared to contest his skill Ksfitisn Sitanari 
Mailoa, accompanied by Loloho, King of Amet, set out to do battle 
with Ayutano. Loloho rent Sitanari back to camp and proceeded alone. 
At Hinariri, Loloho found the great Ayutano and they did battle. A 

3, Depending upon orCumsiHlCca ami method, ihi* cvilem ran «!n imply a. rltal- 
Iiti^k L'.h a fight l£ the dealli. 

+. 'Ilte custom i>r single-perron offensive comhflE whde the opponent lakes a purely 
cSHi-mkivl' ralr li ion mini, jii IniSnnnii nEui itko eel AuiIjmiLia. 

i. 7 "hc dAughtrr « recorded u named Huiliatut ( 1 ’a rfc odor}. t'.hrfdr-m were Always 

given hum ilta Liri ij names in ihe twlief lhaL evil taiiuJd not bnlher Elitrm il , ruirned. 


stalemate developed, and Ayutano declared thnt 7'artapa would be a 
more suitable battleground and ihe pair agreed to suspend the fight 
until they ecu-hi walls (o the new area. There the fight again lapsed into 
a stalemate, and both retired. 

LoLoho gathered a number nf kapiiw and organized them at Wtiru, 
He himself went on to Ksuiaputi, the agreed-on new battle site, to do 
baii le once again with Ayuiano, Instructing his warriors that should he 
not return within two hours, they were to consider him dead,, lie left. 
At Nasaputi, Loloho and Ayutano rlashed, hut still another stalemate 
developed between (hrsr mighty warriors. Both fighters then agreed to 
return the next day to continue the fight, 

Loloho's warriors then held a council of strategy and plotted the 
tactics by which to dcleat Ayutano. They decided lie could be over¬ 
come by laying the smooth, dry branches of the sago palm, on the 
battlefield, and they prepared (he battle site accordingly.* The two 
warriors met as planned the next day. Loloho maneuvered Ayutano 
onto the sago frond*. As Ayutano clipped and fell, Loloho's long knife 
struck hard, decapitating Ayutano- ladnho hid his ghastly trophy at 
Hunruui, Ijli L finally under urging by fellow warriors, the head Was 
taken to and displayed at Haunt ntapeulo 'the head-hanging stone). 
As they buried the fallen ‘Tour-eyed kapiittn Lotohp s warriors chanted t 

Plain a Sambano 
Halt ?Jj£LScr puti 0 
IxUt if mmta 
L&ha la Shu nima Itsi a 

Shoulder spears and sEsidd.',, 
There the place of war. 

1 he pa Ini branches; 

We have destroyed all his power. 

On Amhoit the legend of Ua-Rual is still spoken of when combative 
skill Is the subject of discussion. Ua-Rual* from Tihn-lale, was a warrior 
who is reported to have been born with “two fares," as his very name 
suggests, Because of tills deformity his abilities in battle were fantastic. 
Un-Rual planned to conquer all of south Ceram, and at Pelau riime up 
against warriors Matawoku shark eyes) and. Twaribia. {from tiki, “to 
pull ’i, both of whom had hypnotic powers by which they could draw 
people From behind, rooting them in their tracks, merely by stretching 
out their arms. 

Both warriors knew of U.-oKurd's plan and fur a week sharpened 
their lung ku ives, the edges of which became So sharp that a single hail- 
resting on them could be severed simply by blowing upon it. Past com¬ 
bats had shown that Ua-Rual was invulnerable to metal weapons 
1 kabal’.' Spears had failed to penetrate bis body. But an oid man who 

6. A QonmKkfi irr*, t3ip li-.iv-rt andi brandies a™ irearlcKroLwIy dippery to walk 
on. This ruse is eomninn in MotucOkS li^nds. 

1. American naiiuofury *twl auihurhy on Motuccan (Ambon acid Burui rnhure. 
JuM'pli Devin (»ld the aulhur atwoi fi-au produ^rd hy the current YV&iapu people 
who Listi-ilieJuiip; kinli'- tn darii.-c Attempts lu cut lSiiii- -skill result in oo wound 
rnarli-c | hll laid ability is Liurn-fcnT nut without some SubsCarUc&lLuri. 


fashioned a wooden spear .ttiptt) commanded it to kill Ua-RuaL Ua- 
Huai's swilhaciiS caused the spear Eu miss, however, and Li is fiai-d that in 
1 His day you. can scr Ehe clever warrior's hand marks arid footprints on 
Halu Ua-Ruai; a spear hole rests nearby. Ua-Rual was Liter tricked by 
trie sago-leaf method, and finally dispatched. 

The La no, a wild tribe living iri the interior of tier am, came in 
Am Ivon to raid anti take sUvti They Specially sought out kupitan M.||a- 
tuln, another great warrior, for to have combat with him was the great¬ 
est singular honor that could befall a warrior. To defeat him would lie 
I he ultimate honor, but since many had tried and none had succeeded, 
the mere 1'arE that cine had rurnbal with Matrilula would immortalize 
one. Mata tula’s victories were all due to the sago ruse. So many were 
the Lano who came to dial tenge Matntula that lie resorted eo mirror* 
altar bed to hip shield so that he could see behind him. He too was given 
the name of “the ibur-eyed kapitan." Li is said that the dwarf sago palm 
which flernrishra cm Ambon w:w formed by the many futile strokes of 
long knives aimed Lit Matatida, which instead hud struck the suriuurid¬ 
ing trees. Matalula is Said to hav e tin nil a Spear arid a long knife iriLo a 
Aataja: (pier) tree, the marks qf which can Fuc seen today. 

Insofar as Europeans are concerned the Moluccas passed From Portu¬ 
guese hands I they had discovered the Moluccas in 1512)* to the Dutch 
in the seventeenth century, then to the English, only to be returned to 
the Dutch once again in the first part of the nineteenth century, flic 
resulting martial engagements between Europeans, as well as those 
between Europeans and Molucca n natives, did nothing to allei the 
orig inal natu re of Molucca ti Elgin mg arts mid weapons except to ex¬ 
ercise them- It is recorded that during the battle of Alakss (Hi37) bc- 
tween Slaruku Island natives and the Portuguese, die Latter had given 
notice to the natives that they would build u Jorl on the island. The 
Haruku populace rejected the notice and prepared Jbr WLtr. Portuguese 
landing parties could not withstand ilie daily harassment tactics, and 
the building of the fort was delayed. Portuguese attempts to locate the 
main body qf natives were in vaill. They retired to their ship, anchored 
in the Kailriln bay area, acid perpetrated a ru.St:. A Haruku fisherman 
WHS given a large bag of rice with a small teak in the bag. Thus unknow¬ 
ingly the fisherman led the Portuguese* In the: gathering place qf his 
tribe. Portuguese guns laid siege to the area. A woman named Moriia- 
latoarinai was in command of the Haruku Forres, and ordered bamboo 
cannons, loaded with irocks, to be fired at the Portuguese ship lying olf- 
sliore. i 1 iv ship was damaged but a second came to re in force Mm Portu¬ 
guese invasion. In tlie face of superior firearms the Haruku natives were 
defrated, but not before their ranjetu (sharpened bamboo ground stakes) 
and logs suspended in the trees over the trails (cut loose to crush all 
below i had taken a considerable lull of the European invaders. 

It, It i fiorli'il bv KUMitr McdliCCill ■. I!■::>I .i i"S .Li L +' l>J. 


■ Aborigines 

King Ld these 's famous battle cry: Ql&’o mtd tafia fata (Mis* when you 
slash, miss when you thrust) applies equalLy well io any bladcd weapon 
in the Moluccas, but the good ruler had the spear in tnind as he chanted. 
The spear ysanakai) (Fig, 177) is the central weapon of Ceram, where, 
in the handF of the aboriginal Alcfuru, it became ihc weapon most 
mentioned in legend. Vows of brotherhood among tribesmen are often 
sworn on spears thrust into ihr ground- Legend more often than not 
records water flowing from spear holes in the ground. The spear is 
equally respected by the Huaulu people, the wild inhabitants of west- 
central Ceram. The Tamm bar Island Atefunr are nevertheless skillful 
as spearsmen. Within their shark-cult society t they who practice feeding 
sharks while immersed in water with these killers without harm to them¬ 
selves are some of the most skilled sprarsmen in the Moluccas. Metal- 
tipped and hardwood pointed spean both are used. Bum Island ab¬ 
original Alefum cal! the spear rnktra ; they use the shaft {man i) for com¬ 
bat as much as they do the point. This Strange: ebaractcrislic items 
from the fact that (hey are far better staIT fighters than ihey arc spears- 
men. The main bladed wtapon of the Bum natives is the toda; its 
sheath is called the katuen (Fig. 177), 

The Ceramese love of the bladed weapon is extended in their use of 
the parang, which they refer to as topu . It is a specific type weapon 
which houses a blade somewhat longer than do most Indonesian ^aTtrjtjf. 
The handle of the Ivpu is particularly good in that it is Long and usually 
has a projection near its bull end to enhance gripping so necessary 
fur powerful slash-swinging. A well-timed cutting -action of the lopy 
by an Alefum tradesman can sever as many as thirty stalks of the 
banana tree in one swipe. The blade itself sometimes is provided 
with o notch at a place near where the blade joins the handle; this 
serves to catch the enemy’s blade, deflect it, or trap it. The lepu is 
rarely carried in a sheath. Alefum aboriginals on Buru Island call the 
parang a todo in the northern areas. It is a somewhat shorter*bladed 
weapon than the iopu. Its sheath {iodopvtsn ) serves as a shield in combat, 
Connected intimately with the use of the spear and the long knife is 
the shield. On Ceram and Ambon it is called taiawaku, a term (hat 
means “to miss and catch.' 1 This is in reference to the action by which 
a skillful warrior causes his enemy’s long knife to miss iia intended 
target and tin- substitution of the shield to “catch 1 ' that blade—having 
it stick into the wood, there to be trapped. The warrior who has his long 
knife so caught is considered to have bad technique; it is always fatal. 
The satuwakv is a defensive weapon, but not completely so. It can he 
applied, after direct Mocking* as a weapon to strike by m sharp friges 
and corners, By its peculiar narrow shape, the saluwata Is highly maneu¬ 
verable.. On Buru Island the shield is called the email and is comparable 
to the j£}/bu.viAu. Along the southern areas of Buru Island the shield is 

THE Moluccas 231 






317, Grrajn™: wrapatiry. 


substantially replaced by the use of ihe sheath of the long kniYe. [| is 
known as a katata ■from ka equated to fait which means “tree," and 
turn which means “Hump"! ,* 

I he bow and arrow i fisnah and sunk p<mah is common to the interior 
areas of Ceram, Tauiinhar, Buru, and Halmahera, but tl does not re¬ 
place the Haded weapon, Legend irlls or King Sinai of Abarn who held 
an archery contest For his warriors the target, one of his daughter*’ 

I he lighting staff and stick make important appearances in the 
Moluccas. L he best staff and stick fighters in Indonesia .lit perhaps 
found on Buru Island which houses the most distinguished, hut little, 
known form of this type of combat, A system called utimaI-M ryisis (here 
among the aboriginal tribes. Two styles are dominant, one endemic to 
northern regions, the oilier, to those of the south, Namlea and Lcksnlu 

Perhaps the Hrsi white man to witness the stick-fighting skills of the 
Burn aborigines was Charles Forbes, an Englishman, whose journeys 
in nineteenth-century Mol mean and other rnpolr Indonesian areas he 
recorded in ii'andfrings oj a Naturalist. Forbes observed and wrote 
about a 

. , . thick walking stick constantly earned by the natives on their 
journeys [with these they are adepts at quarter-staff]; 1 was 
much amused bv seeing two children practicing with singular 
skill their ems arid gourds, i|iLitr unconscious nf bring watched. 

lie was ewniucnting in rrferrnrc to aboriginal tribes of the Apu River 
basin, tine villHgr of CSclam in tile Wakulo (lakes) district. 

Uuru Island is considered by some historians to he the starling point 
of the final dispersion uiThe autochthones rjf the archipelago, the bases 
of iht Maori races eastward. 1 * The Alefuru aboriginal tribes all carry 
the Fighting stair nr slicks but are nut as warlike as arc the Ceramet 
Alefuru headhunters. Though they make good spears and knives of 
metal, Bum Akfuru prefer e lit- lighting staff, 

Fitimaen is a rugged lighting art. Whether or not the wood chosen 
for the weapon is from the lightweight, but durable rotan l rattan ■ or 
from some dense hardwood hundreds of varieties abound on ihe is- 
land ;, ihe resulting product is capable nf smashing the human body to 
a pulp when used iti correct fashion. Training sessions arc usually care¬ 
fully conducted to mjninmc injuries, Enji sometimes in rhe Frenzy nf 
such training, control is lost and injuries occur. Combats are short in 
duration and lively spirited. They may be fought with cither one or two 

it. CJliailei Knrtar^ {I'gtfH&ratff vj a .Vellur'dlnl > jM'skaps was rcfrrnru; In 1 hw iirlitfrr 
when lie reported Buru AlrCum niiim ai rarrj mg cudgdi. called iaa-tunn. 

10. Dr. Soi-kinicrno hold i such a n apiiuon. 


Micks called maen. The lengths of the weapons vary with the circum- 
itanctt and the individual choice of the people using them. 

Some use of the blowpipe is made on Taniuibilr and Kuru islands. On 
the latter it is called sumping." It can be used for battle, though it is 
more likely to bn: a hunting weapon. Poisons are applied to the missiles. 

The Alefum aborigines are great lovers of red-colored objects. Pre¬ 
paration (hr baLlh includes wearing the red hr ad band, acid on Hum 
Island, the cloth (i/itffji), which means L 'wrap around article of cloth, rr 
is called the milalot when donned. It too signifies combat readiness. An 
abundance of red-colored wearing apparel intensifies tike martial ardor 
of the Alefuro lighting man and incites liim to spill blood. Hinterland 
tribesmen of Ceram, to this day, arc uncivilized and shun modern 
society. They arc defensively hostile. Travel in their mountainous areas 
is danger'ms to the uninvited outsider, who will hr set upon with wild 
dogs, spears, blowpipe missiles, arrows, and Tfinjau, The ranjau, I he 
sharpened bamboo -stakes planted in the ground along trails, are pre¬ 
pared from a special type of bamboo which is of a poisonous variety 
I bulu lui). This bamboo exudes poisonmi* sap. Wounds from a Weapon 
fashioned from this wood tnnn discolor [o a bluish tinge and an- hard |o 
heal. 11 Puncture wounds are fatal. 

It is interesting to note the deep sense of combative reality which pre¬ 
vails among aboriginal tribesmen in the .VfoluCCan areas. No organised 
systems of grappling or boxing exist; only weapons systems a re prac¬ 
ticed. Bladcd weapons predominate, but there arc also projectile types, 
stick, and stall' instruments. Tike Moluccas warrior need never lie with¬ 
out a weapon, for the jungle trails are ILllt'd with useful cbjectS- 

Kamarian, a village in southwestern Ceram, is the center of com¬ 
bative ardor. Originally called Amalohy (ama is "father,*' faky is 
"group'*), >t was located lit llic mountains away hum the coast, Later it 
was moved to its present coastal location. There can hr arm on sped 3 1 
occasions the centuries-old tjakauki t., the male war dance indigenous 
lo the Moluccas. Its origin is obscure but is suggested in legends, though 
not by name. Hybrid forms are practiced today on T&nimbar, Timor, 
and in the Celebes. 

From the age of sixteen, village boys study and work for three to five 
years in conjunction with the kaktAan. 11 Under the rigors of daily train¬ 
ing the TjAKAi.Ki k is performed. 

The TjAKALfLE, born of the needs of a successful raiding party which 

M, 1 i'll Li'.i.l t:-L.-ill 1 , a. piK.iM'lii' riiTTiiplion of tL<‘ 3l lira. Lard It idtmt-.iaiijk wril iuTJ ipit. 
Thiis mLiv [N.ini lo the fact that ifo blowpipe on Eturu Is-land is perhaps a lramfrrred 
weapon, and of modem usage only, t lien- in no Beninese word fnr blowpipe, 

I* I Iw ai.nhor JulforeiJ tlie sh^liWst sltAEjcIl frinri biila tui. The wuuftd took about 
Een diva Lu llfeat. 

tu. A highly terrel, animiatir rdiRinai* fthrm, active Luday. As a secret society, i LI 
ivoi kiiwj liav-e never betiii fully disclosed. 


had returned to t heir village to celebrate, today remains to be only 
commemorative of rarlier days. But its importance with in a combative 
Study is great. Alrfuru warriors in full costume demonstrate their skills 
wirh the full ratine of aboriginal weaponry, Supported by background 
rhythm, as produced by drum and gong 1 iifa\ and fife uafira), two op¬ 
posing groups of warriors take [lie held. Alter a Certain, specific intro- 
duciury ritual, lwo opposing kspiian "duel' 1 with topn (long knife) and 
Sanokat ispeaf' Supporting tribesmen wield long knives and wtuivaku 
(Fi*. 178). 

On ike small island of Hatukii is Ibuod a system of stick fighting 
which may bear some relationship to the Philippine {Mitotan] use of 
iabak {sharpened) sticks. Karuku islanders make use of small sticks 
sharpened at ooe or both eod|, lire hardened, and apply them as 
skewerj- (hr sticks may alto serve as ranjau. 

The strangest form of combat in the Moluccas is found on Ambon 
Island. In the Mam ala district will be found a form which ran be 
lei med “broom fighting. 1 ' The iafwiidi r a well-known Indonesian pnimi- 
tive whisk broom made of palm libers tied at one end Fii>. J79|, ii the 
sole weapon. Masses of combatants fight somewhat analogously to the 
£isehba system of Toradja [see Chapter 6, p. 220), which piis village: 
against Milage. Tactics involving the iafnilitit are of a bcal-and-flail type, 
causing superficial lacerations. When wounds are substantial the com¬ 
bat Ceases and oils arc rubbed into the wounds to promote healing. 
Jabbing tactics, using the spinclike end of the instrument, tan be dan¬ 
gerous to the eyes. 

l animbar (Timor-Laut Group) Alefuru aboriginal tribes were ob¬ 
served by Forbes ' IVtindrnng.i) in llir- nnietcrrith century, to bf well 
armed for battle, He wrote: 

Flieir arms arc a shield, often elaborately carved and adorned 
with the hair of their enemies, IwawS anil arrows and Various 
forms of iron or copper punted lances and (pears which they can 
use with marvellous precision, and a long sword carried in a loop 
in a bulla In-hide corslet to fit beneath the arms made by them¬ 
selves and resembling a 1 6th Century citftttrj, of which it Is prob¬ 
ably a copy. They use also counterfeit Towrr guns {made in 
Singapore], but as they (ill them with gunpowder almost to the 
muzzle they ate nothing like the dangerous weapon —except to 
themselves that their unerring arrow is. 

It is quite obvious from Forbes' description that tlic Tanimbar natives 
had acquired quite a Slit of European weaponry, albeit Some of it not 
too practical, 1 heir love of display perl taps Conditioned the choice to 
carry what (hey must have understood to be poor weapons. The mere 
fact that (hey did not do away with their aboriginal weapons, the spear, 
the long knife, and the bow und arrow, would tend to support that idea. 


I Ceramrec Airfuru bcadhuncjn with itfu -Enng 
knqJV ; nnrl rorruAm (ipcar) perform (tie TJakEelc wu 
rEa«rt (#re aJso faring- page). 



■ Pentjak gUiit 

As is Eho case throughout Indonesia* pentjak-ftlai js supported and prac¬ 
ticed largely by Muslims hi the Moluccas, t'mm the stronghold of 
Islam in Halmahera and Ternate in the northern sector to the central 
Amboncse area, pttUjak-silai owes Its progress in the Moluccas to Mtig]tin 
exponents. It stands as less developed than its counterpart styles on the 
islands (ff Java, Sumatra, Bali, ami even the t>lebes. There is little 
tendency to regard fieatjaksitat as other than a combative art. Though 
very popular and gathering large groups of advocates, it dearly plays 
no important part among aboriginal tribes, such as the Alefuru. 

The best pmljak-sitat is sceii on the island nf Ambon in the village of li tnerah. iMn formal name lias been attached to this system. The 
present instructing staff, consisting of Kadjab Radas, Idris Hint, and 
Moch Djcn Nio, further declares that no standardized names exist for 
the many techniques except m a very general sense where Indonesian 
words for actions, such as “strike," “'slash,' 1 “thrust," “kick," and SO 
on, are adequate- Further, there is no special costume for the per¬ 
formance of the art, daily dress being sufficient. Gradings do not exist 
and practitioners, are either students or instructors;. 

The history of BatufflCraH village ptnijak-silai is interesting. Though 
a product indigenous to the village, it is based on transferred technical 
roots. Its component is specifically .from the Mena rig kubau area 

which gave it a distinctly recognizable style; its sifat component derives 
from the personal experiences uf each of its teachers, and the list is long, 
From the founder Arhmrd Shahib, through successors Abdul LatieF 
Tjorra, Panglima Patu Api, Djaksa All, Baginda Marra, and Battik 
Ramarullah to the present-day trio, has come a great variety of com¬ 
bative experience. The first two brought southern Chinese kxntao lae- 
iics, as learned tn 1 he southern Celebes, (o HAtumcrah fiOtljek-sitaL From 
the Panglima onward, all teachers have derived from Fadang [Suma¬ 
tra} origins. 

BaUmnerah village ptnijak-filat is a lighting art. This fact could be 
easily overlooked. When practiced as prntjak. it is an aesthetic discipline 
enhanced by drum beats to aid trainees to set a pattern of rhythm. Its 
silait though rarely used, requires no musical accompaniment. The 
system specializes in weapons, but, ns is traditional with all ptnijaksilat 
forms, trainees begin with empty-hand exercises. These follow stances 
and movements of Sumatran forms, but with enough mod if i cal ions that 
show the autogeny of the village teachers. There Is Jess use ofdtpok and 
ifmpsfh than is characteristic of any Menangkahau system- Rarely do 
exponents offlatumcrah commit themselves to ground positions. Bath 
open- and closed-hand striking methods are employed. Kicking is de¬ 
pendent upon the frontal straight snap-kick, but is used minimally. The 
fiatumcrah exponent will concentrate on the enemy’s facial area, mak- 


INl>. Hmin KiLrirn. lli<u ttifle. 
year-old tjabang expun in 
iSaiumerab village iu'.jI. 

ing hard eye contact; should the eiituny turn, the penetrating si arc is 
continued on ihr track or side of the enemy's head, 

A wide variety of weapons, some indigenous to the Moluccas is 
studied. But most specialised are the tjabtiTig, i4 and the pisau, both 
Standards it) pentjak-niul. Local area weapons arc the gala, lighting staff 
metal or wood), and the pabmg, the long'bladcd sword. The tjabatg 
rsperj in Batumcrah is Husin Karim ; Fig. I8U), a fact made unusual 
in that Karim is mne years old. His technique is smoothly rhythmir and 
efiwtive, 1 * He laces aimed "enemies” with confidence ;Fig. 181), 
Pi.tan tactics are applied with full combative: vigor by the youths of the 
village Tig. 182), But the employment of the pedang is the special 
province of the young ladies of Batumcrah who daily duel in training 
sessions scheduled lor early mornings, Fig. 183;. 

On ihr- tiny inland ofHanaku is found an interesting pentjuk-aial form. 
While ihc mechanics of eliis form are not vitally different from usual 
Moluccan styles, there is emphasis on one-legged pastures. I liis posture 
renders possible a kicking and thumb-in-lhe-cye gouging attack to lie 
made simultaneously, Haruku land is sandy and the one-footed stances 
may have some advantages in the ankle-deep sand (Fig, 184). 

H. ]'"Iili.'ilK t lilr'it hf?. i! frii.'j.vnj' (irnn hranrh i m ttn.1 Umcrab . 

]5. Ill tin - author s, opifiiiMl, rht IKhn g& llie fi[Li;i.l Ekf any h* 1 hoi witrH'.mrd rJie* 
where in IniinEimi;,, Okinawa, or Japan 


36-1. Hush Karim faring Art ‘-entmy," 

382. Piitau lutici practiced by Batumcrab vilpngr yovrtbF (2 view*). 


J84. Twn views oF crne-teggrd poalurro of Hirubu island funtjak-ttiai. 

IS3. The pf-Jang used by r 
young Batumcrjih woman, 



Juao rle: Da Asia. Das Fmtes que os Porbtgwtts jwntm jtc dfsatbrimatla 
r renfieuta dot marfi e ietr<u da QrifttU, Dtcado seguitda, parie II. Lisbon, 

Bishop, CarE Whining: "Long-Houaa and Dragon-Boats.” Antiyititj, i£ 

tJhoa, Ju-ltua : Chu-fan-chi, Translated and annalalcd by Friedrich Hirth and 
W. R-ockhilL Si. Petersburg: Priming Office of the Imperial Academy 
of Sr irnccs, 191 I + 

Combes, Francisco; Wistaria dr Ins is fat de Mindanao, Madrid: W. E, Reran a 
and £". Fas tell*, 1097. 

GravTu/d, John: Hi\tmy pjth* Indian ArHuptiaga. 3 vote,, Kdinhuirgh, 1H2EJ. 

DTredia, Godinho: "Eredia’iDescription oi'Malaca, Meridional India and 
Cathay.*' Translated and an no Laled by J. V. Mills. Jainnal of the Malayan 
liraih h of tka Royal A fiat it Society t 8 April 1930|, 

I.lraegrr, Dnnn F, and Smith, Robert W. L /Jinan Fighting Arti, Tokyo: 
Kodansha, 1969. 

iiir |, George Windsor: 7‘^r Eastern Seas, or Voyages and Adventures rn the Indian 
Archifitfaga. London: Wm. 1 fallen and Co., 3 S37. 

Forbes, Charles: H'as&rings of a Naturalist. London, l&flli. 

Forrest i Thcnm: A i ejqgtfnm Cafatttn to the Meegui Auhifulago. London, 


Gardner, C. B.: Krrii and Other Malay Wrapom. Singapore, ll'lfi, 

Griffith-Williams G. G.: Su.ggttttd Origin oj the Malay Noth. Singapore, 19:)?, 

Groeneveldl, W, P.: Historical Nutts r?Ji Indonesia and Mefaya (smpittd from 
Chinese Sown iff. Djakarta, i 960 . 

Hill, A. H.; The Malay Kttii and Other Weapons, Singapore, 13G2. 

Jasper, J. F,,: "Hel ciland Ha wean en aifm bewonmL 1 ' Tidjttfatji paat fat 
Bimenlandsch Btthmr, 31 {1906), 

Jochim, E. F.: “Beschrijving van dt:n Sapoedi Atchipel.” 7’y^jSirAraj l 'if iMfOr 
indue fa Taal- t Land- en Volkenkunde, 36 {1893). 


Kennedy* Raymond: Bibliography of Indonesian Peoples and Cultures, New 
Haven: Vale University Press, 1946. 

3 j, Chh The Famatim^f tht Qmest Ptople. Cambridge: Harvard University 
Prefli, 192B. 

Linschuter. Jan Huygheri VAft : Thr Vvjafit of John Hvjghm van Linsthnlin to 
the East Indies. An old translation i 1598) edited by A. Cl. Burnell and P, A, 
TieEe. Issued by the Hakluyt Society, 1st series. Numbers, 7(5 ami 71. 
London, 3 ft&5. 

Marsdcn, VVilkam; History af Samalra, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University 
Pr«4 (3rd Ed*}, 1966* * 

Moerdowo: Bali (Sent htdaja Bali}, Surabaya, E959, 

Moor, L. ‘ Hindu Pmthem. E810. 

Palm, Hetty: Ancient Art of (hi Minahasa , Bandung, 3950. 

Palmer, L. PE.: Indonesia. London: Thames and Ifnd&nn, 1966, 

Pinto, Fernao Mendes: The i 'ayagts and Aditeatmes of Fernand Mttukx Fsnta. a 
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Piro, Totn^: -S'lfmtf Oriental 153 2-15, 

Thomas Stamford: The Hillary $J jot-a. 2 vols., London: Oxford In 
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Skeal, Walter William, and Rlagden, Charles Otto: Pagan Hater oj the Malay 
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Smith, Robert W.t Pb Km. Tokyo: Kodinsha, 1967. 

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Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903. 

244 BlBLlOGitAl'IIY 


— Ccncrdl — 

uri/nti, 53, 104, L6fi, 176 
ambush, 114, L 22 

ontAtepophagi (man-eaten;,, ! IP, LI &, 

11Ll, 120, 121 

, 4 ,Vi'r:i.'ri tMtMdHJ, L 59 

iiriVif (ihatp fKunt *Fcellar on £nr ), 90 
armor, 23, 163, 196, 218, 225, 235 
arrows. S& wider Weapons, 24# 

ihjfflt, bajag (pirate}, 199, 233 
hajswa box. S» Tindju 
tain (rneetmg ball), 157 
iflitgi* fiber, 218 
Sar.j ang. Stt Gulat 
(spirit), 133 
Battle of Aialca, 230 
btlarfin (se-lf-defense)., 68 
btlaSaignj-n [CUrved j-jiikf t*n kr\i j, 90 
btriUng (fart), 2 J 8 
hitha £ (pedicab), IH 
bthwk (“sacred and invulntrable"), 

biting lactic*, I Of? 

blowpipe. Ha under Weapons, 249 

Brahma, 26 

bronae-socJtetcd axes, 2ft 

Buddhism, 27 

/.ii t:i Jut ( j poison), 2 M 

CaHendrs,: dynasty, 2G ; km$i, 26 
eannibmliim, Sim- anihtGpophngi 

Chinese temples, 21 
Chou Late) period, 21 
thmak 113 

(iHvm (Korean grappling forroj, 104 
Civ* (Siva), 26, 04 
commercial inier-cst*; British, H3; 
Dutch, 113 

cfiifu (Wuni end of collar on tru’, 00 
dapuT Arwr (undulalo blade}, 88, 182 
i 'uiq ■ straight blade l, 88, 182 
Oi'injl (early Javanesc kingdom:, 29 
; ground-sit upg posture), 5?, 63, 
60,75, 131, 152. 167, 168.171,176. 

Dongdai culture, 18 
Dniig-s'-nn dagger*, 19 
duftuli (magistrate., L2 I 
<huu* {village), 121, 122, 130 
dwdjapi;!i ('’gate guards" i, 27 

e-JeptLaillli, L ] 7, L3fi 

Ende (whip Ugh ting I r 180, LBS, 192 

fighting arts. See -jM iVAj; rireum 
p Korean wrestling}; Knde; Kiti- 
mit'ji; Gulat; Artrirtr-^rf ,■ 

kuriLan; M*ri*a; Q-JhjL; ptnl?<ih- 
nlal; SLiemba';. tune themving ; 
SukiL, Sumba bos: Jinnri; TindfUJ 
Tjumhiik; Tjaiji; l "dung (Titan) 


fitrmaen llu runes* ilaff fightings 


thru, 230 

iy.i ^ru (collar guild of Aru I „ B6, 94 
ftifiju mtnsmpimg (one-piece guiya '. 9D 
ibreaihing . Ti 

gubu (handle of any Mcnangkiifeau 
knifr), £05 

gutrrilll warfare, 30, Lit, i5K-39, 


GuLal (wmlling), KH 
gun pmdtr, 114.1 M3 

Han China, 19 
&imdE fipirtl), SO 
Haunuitepnile r‘KrtwJ-hanging 

head^hijuien and hcatWisnllmg, 19, 
119, 161.213, £24,233 

lbrJmtM. 1 , £75 
HLLiyai AbdMtkh, £l£ 

Htoilutwlturr, I?, IH 
Itart**, 194 
hua (“JltiWttTl”), ISA 
hyprumh. E'tl 63, Jfc5 

ifutin fi:fcnh:-, 244 

iitm pan lLinyj ray). 94, 312 

zimin : Muslim priesl), I L5 

itxerw, L65 

ipnh 11 n , MM>n ■, 19, ?0. 150-80, 1%, 
21S, 223,214 
hbrn, 2B, \ 15, 133,200 

I sib in ryu. ISO 

jungfrul (urTTJiI li ini nn ijn blade), *H) 
.|Lidn [e<chm: | sji s, 5-2 I 
tsnrrijH'HHTin, S3, I Tt 

A/iU/j'lJ-Jfrztr-, Ifjfl 
kouskl-garj, 168 
niolo'-fnki, 160 
niu/tj-tfan, 1G8 

tiiahfrfumrriiT, 160 

107, L60 

.irCrj-fli^r, 107, 160 
iiVimr-cwmr, 53 
iitfaff-jrap. 168 

/ftniWiMjpf, 168 

32 , m, m 

i.j.SrJ • imiimmly fr-Lirti injury I, 22D 
kaiSai (utaung on Large!-, I 75 
JbtijccH vconiral of the hcari), E75 

hakihm (were! sockrty £34 
itrutera lr», £3(3 
Kali-head design. 182 
Aifw^in^r i village-areas), 155, 157,21 l r 

knpihtn (mar 1 L. 1 l champion •, 228 2 1 !, 

230, 235 

Asraie-diS, 52, IOI, 160 

- light agairiii many.i, 34 
Aifar (speed, i„ 175 
Krisli Havana aiory. 2? 
kvng-ju (endeavor), 04 
imm, 13,29,31,44,80 00, 104,164 
64, 175, 176, 185, 192, £05, 

£06, £22, 238 1 weapons, 164, 206 

kmlav Hylc-fi- 

Fuliirn (Uokkicn) stylo, 60, IbJ 
Kau Koen i Kow-Kuu ■, 81 
Kebudajaan I linn 6ilat Indonesia. 

Klio ;Canton: aiylcs, 00, 16.4, 208 
Kcmgiu sty Icj, HI I 
1 J n. Kim. 6£> 

IVh ho ' pai hay), 81 
I’nrbikawa, IM 
Shantung stylrr. St), 17H 
Shaolin, S4 

Thfty Krk ' TiTi-c^r fVmaai, 81 
Thay Lohan 'Ijir, Rti 
TWl Kun.flO 

tambtngaja ''short ipitr cm 6 m. i, 90 
lalinan (training), !H 

Irg nekif, 63, 167 

kl\ (1® ride a brrrsri, l! : K) 

Iwj (wai-H in inr bLmle , 88 

mii^ra fic.rii ( rnayMT Iriu'brr'. Eft, L.' Ci- 

Main IWJjU, .W Tiiidju. 

Mam 1 j.ilji. See Tpalji 
Mninpahit (empire!. 23, Q5, 1 12, 123, 

Majtci Union h!and liehnng arl , 

Maori rac«[, £J3 

pifj'ictarf islaFl knob-head.), 224. 226 

mtlia tryj (jbir blade i, RH 
MnUtram Kinydcnii, 24, 27, 28 
mawmhi-'gen-, \ >inj:id-lii"nise kiC k t. 167, 

medicifns, 2.15 
Mflanidan InAwmrfi^ 2£5 
Mfscililhic. period, 10 
mtMitf (headband), 254 


im.icJbo.trd. 331 

TT7L'lj'r.J. 21 


Denpsuar, 22 
Eljakarta, 11 

Sono Roedojo -Sekaten, 2Z 
music, 36 36, 165, 226, 2 AH 

Mudhn rombalivH’s, t fi.'i 

Muthrrv rnipctn!, 20, 113, 191 52, 


mysticism, 13 3-. 165 

nai-kueia ; mount a hone: , 190 

Neolithic period, 10 

Ngada, 23, 190 

Ngandong skulls, ' H 

Wgilitll-Stt under Weapons, 249; ojimf 

tl l« l ' , Vri'L! wood, 212 

Okol : Maduran fighting art), I CM- 30? 

paK/i (shank of tar . 90, 34 
I'ahtolLthic penwt, IK 
jSonitr (relief work on inr blade}, 52* 
9ft, 123, 102 

ptimdt weapons, rnak^r),fl6, '*>4 95 
pimdfkst* ■ master teacher of pmfjvk- 
iiim and spiritual^), 30, 40, 72, 76 
pantttiiti ■; chief i „ 121 
panggau warrior!, 122 
Part)! Legends, 92 
pi/tumpuktifi ; flattery). 220 
pn stance '' tiurfjff- stance), 04 
pmijak i -.kill1 11 1 body movement far 
wlf-defense), 32, 175 
p&ttjdiriilat: areas where practiced. 
Rad, J65-02 
Celebes, 159-226 
Java, 41-72 
Lesser Sundas, 105 90 
Madura. 72-70 
Moluccas, 227-30 
Sumatra and Kiouw, ] 09-64; 
definition of, 32, 74; development 
of, 41 , general characterutKi of, 31 
14, :)$ 40; gmeraf rrft-rr n™ r 23 
+0; nlhcr terms Tor, 42- wrapcstis, 

fvnljiik-nial siLy Ifj: 

Aijeh, 75 

Bandung lilat. Sir Sunda rifai 
Barn, 140 
Hatumwah, 230-59 
tihakii Negara, lft7, IBS-75 

Etima, 5ft 

OtaEiL|uka Bulih, 56 

Oeltma, 63 
Haiti, 167, 175-76 
Harimau, 134 3b 
Karuku, 230-30 

H'.SI ilkalitn Prnijak Silitu Indo¬ 
nesia 1, 50-52, 140 49, 152 
Joduk, 165 
Karens Maljang, 205 
Kcndari, [40. 213 
£w Aiajf, 134 
Kumanjgu. 142 
Lintau, 143 
Manija Tonadja, 205 
Menangkabau styles, 72, 75, J JI 
51, 157 

Mustika K whang. 40 
Padang, 131 
Pamar, 71 
Paratman, 140-42 
Paiai, I 40 
Fatih, 136-39 

I'eri&ai Dili 60-72, [67, 175, 176 

Persatrian Hats. 55, 56 
Fi’S] (Ffcsatuan i'erujak Silal 
Selurah Indonesia;, 40-50 
EMsii Sikti, 52-54 
E > utimandi, M l 
Futra. 56 
Sanding, ] 3ft 
Sawi, 143 
Sena Hati, 54 
Setia. llati Organast, 54 
Setia llat i Toraic, 54, 60 63 
Silai Organasi, 60 
Stwlak. 136 
Such! 1 !ati, 60 
Suka rogang, 40 
-Sunda , 4L 
Tapak Suiji, 56-57 
Tapu r 205 
i'jantpur, 139-49 
Tjiboddujui, 4 3 
I jtkabon, 4L 
Tjikalong. 41,44 
I'likampek. 41 
Tjimalajsi, 41 
Tiamandi’, 41 44 
Tjimaljan, 41 
Tjin^krik, 46, Ff.'i 
Tjipetir, 41 
Tjmlirr, 41 

Ct-OfiAkY-lltDEX 247 

Tjjwan npn, 44 

Trirfharma, 16? 

Tunggal Hati, 55 
Undtikayam, H3 

(prearranged form I, 5+ 
piracy, 20, 123, 130, i» 201, 212 
HA a OMl inpHS ™^r, IS 
f’lmtocctve period, I? 
poisons. -Set 

Polynesian influcncra, 226 
prau {boat), 200 

Rjmuyiai story, 2? 
fiwiffaj (dance form), 36 
fritting (branch schools 1. 175 
Kcog dance, 99 
re taw (rattan), IS6, 216, 233 

sago < palm:. 229-30' 

Saivite Icings. 26 

itfittpil fcHHipiece df irii sheath}, ':H 
jawAcm ("three steps" 1 )* 31 
San-ro-T'si, 20 
sarong (costume), 124 
irth'if (ahemth of Jtfii ,i , 91, 125. 205 ; 
lypa of, 92 

its jiuttudi, IS, 19, 123, JEW, 210-13 
Scrtiba. Set Sise-mba 
Sempik. Set Sisemba 
Sempok (ground-sitting posture i, 57, 
65. efl, 75. 131, 152, 167, 160, 171, 
176, 730 

lepii (betel imjL punch:, 2 IS 
siMtyW, Ikiclti, 131 
Jtlm {fighting), 32, 30. 175 
til# Mekyu, 23. 46, 72. 75-77, 3 S3, 
152, 355, 172 

SingOHitEi. empire, 3R 

SisirmbB. I r_i>:j |.sJ-, fi^hticip; art), 220, 

227, 235 

irngiok {belttiel.i, 2 IR 
spearhead*. 20. 22, ISO 
Srlvijaya empire, 20 
j f<un :ponuies', 135 
stone implements, IB 
stone molds, 23 
stone throwing, 196 
stuipji, 76 

SuUe ;'a Sumfanvan fighting art), 19? 
SaJalat ajjalatia I Mm lily rt;i.ui<: >, I 12 

Sumba bw (a Sunt ban fighting art:, 


rwwiff, 10+ 

>itl[M|i>k.UTl, 21 

Tajv wsafttin ( Malay claasit ), M2 
fangiiBfrm (to catch the enemy!. 74 
ru.'.ii■■[«.(mystic lore], Hh 
fflisfn (poison], liee ipth 
tattooing, MB 

tax>ur tight against many], 34 

temple Images, 2 1 

Tenganart. Ste Ejide 

Temr of tits W*rtd> 117 

iest pattern f ktitf 96, 97 

Titian. Sec L'dung 

Tindju (a Flores fighting art), I BM 

Ttnj» stance ai.'ij.uh sidricc;, B4, 176 

Tipuan (a rLut'l, I7U 
T |. l k ll . i I - ■ (male war dance, 234 35 
Tjambuk (East Javattrae whip light¬ 
ing). ® 

TjaLji ;i Ktnrr-i lighting art., Ififi 
Tjitjtrtg, See. Ijaiji 
Ijau-wi (loin fln|h'., 104 
Twrr flint lock, 196, 235 
trance ilatn, 165 
Trimwrti. 26 

Tri-^akli ■!a philosophy}, 52 
iriffda (trident), 33 
ittio-tnio {war dance}, 163 
luring (metal decorations}, 225 

L'dung (lighting an i, 103-10+ 

«fii (handle•of Arif). 90, 125 
id» types, 90 
tiiuM/ing (warriors], 315 
u’KftHiKg (spear-catching), 99 
United Hast Indiii Company, 29 

Wadjak skulls, !ft 
war (warfare), Itjtl 63, 226 
war canoe*,, 160 
warrior images, 21, IR4 
usamgt (alone urn), 225 

ifatU rervmenm rtf rmpung : stone ihrone 

of l he ahonton). 223 
uMpang kulil (duuh.iw play I, 54, !lfl 
whip liglnLrig, 23, lBO. ISC, 192 
women in dgh Ling arts. 239 
tt'u-Aunj (martial endeavor), K4 


■- Weapon* 

(shield), 1.06 

imni pasinh .jarrC"*), Sa amjwn 
ailnr (hallHnJU 72 
a fit (sickle) , 36, 74, re. 99, [00 
•nows, L55 -56. IbO, [90, 196 

i<vW, 158, M1204 

iaAriung (Toradjan shield'. 2l& 

tftadau frurvH) dagger'!, 126 
btli {Fline*. parang |9{l 

kMfamt (fTorts jhsraitf, 190 

AmTlKl£. See' jfccnz^£ 

fnni ijabang (iron inutdicm) , ^ 

LElivi |npe. ftiw rusn^rtan 

bem,- a fid arrow, 40, 159, 160, 190, 

E92, 196, 235 

(whip), 99, 104, 150, 100, 190 

ffajmA nmumian^-gin .j swrurrl;, I IS 

t-lubs, 23, 159, 224 

ih-ivnfl ! El.Li.UMiM 1 Arts), 102 

ii4f i J ut'ilijiil spear I, 216 
iWf A/ltfitti ft iirt ;T<pradjin w;«t spear , 

Mu Jefiwtg 'Toradjan war xpean, 2 ill 
rJnkf fust @£<a iToradjan certrmnniaj 
spear), 2 EO 
discus-knife, 110 

thin'it.m I 'oradjivr- buffalo knife .215 

ttmli (shield;. 231 

miW-v i spear], 231 

firearms, 1J5, 130. 155. 157, I5S, 150, 
190, 2IS, 230, 235 
£ eda (flub). 190 

gatiubimf (Sumatran Enng-fcnili :. 116, 

jfn(n IivIiIiiil' luITi, ?3fi 

gob* (cleaver), 36, 4fi, 4fl. 76, 94, 180 
jDfli'Br ishort club), L40 

hataim {shall knife. 152 

halberd. 20 

Aui-iMfl (whipl ike-device), 200 

hupaJ 'arniwi, 190 

jtimt'iii ( Arab knife), 33 
jmn Ikitak knife;, 136 

Aiij'iii (whip). 10b 

kapok Mnrait ih-rqrwinig batthcT, L56 
karamiit (curved knife -, 129 
kam short knife ), 152 
iirbmg [Japanese si ngle-ed g'.' jwtsrd), 
57. 172 

tatjifi 'ihcAth for (fldw), 231, 233 
iiUnwig (Long sword;, 30, 76, 99, 
t24, 151. 103. 215. 223 
knives, 23, 123, 22H, 229, 230, 233. 

komng .a Flora spear , 190 
J.vjifj'i.'jirj i hook), 48 
Am (douHe-cdged dagger), 35, 74, 
SG99, 114, 116,121, L24, 152. 159, 
I GO, [65. [72, 182, 200, 204 
Am bahan '.large Arrs), (26 

ArJj rnajapahsl r 1)2 

fcrirjkHgmg (a m^ierlikr hrrj), 


krii paSafHth, 92 
foil pi(Aii, 92 r 126 
k\tdi ,knife), 70 
kujmgt (mystic kniib). 5<3 
Aii.iur lapear). 121 

(Japans weapon:. J9B 

(itflr (arrow}. 190 

HM (Toradjan long knife), 215. 210 
(fliij falangt (Taradjan war knife}, 2 15 
lpb$ PaSt-tttit (Toradjan buichcring 
knife), 215 

faiii inpnng (Toradjan wood chopper;, 


iuArrrg ■ kriil" blade made of spear¬ 
ed), 126 

{spear ■, | 24 

SajKlung lamburn speari, (ill 
lemiipg. See iambak. 

Juris pedang (sword), 151 

mam >]jeaf kElliEi}, 231 
BUhrn ; stteki233-34 
Majapofiii to, 20 
iwsntfrw (Diytk long knife}, 204 

nume i Flnrr-s parang , FLk) 

pa dr. Set (aha. 

ttudimpah 'CelelMs ihrowing sslck-. 

pajung iumbrella;, 124 
pti&u ithrowing blade), 50 

13 LOSS A R y^t.V U KX 24ft 

pam.urdafr (swtKrd), 124 
panrJi [bgw)> See bow and arrow 
parang (cleavw), 34, TO, 151, 159, tGO, 
163, !W, 196, 193. sot, 2U5, 206, 

parang up* tjot a (Tararijan parang .216, 

pedaag 'sword , fe>, 65. 67, 124, 172, 

penrti (Taradjan sword), 215 
prnifugitng (wooden yoke , ISO 
fe'ufwpit 'pinchor), 53 
pmfjtng > Kalinin club:. 172 
(shield), 23, 152, 163 

pftjal, [OS Srr alwi pttjat 
pitpi: (ehlb), L92 
pewieueng (rwurtlj, 351 
plan lOmn.'sr 1 hxcnwinic blade), 50. 

pliim rinn-dehciapl kiLilV . 46. 40. 76. 

78, 99, 172. £05, 239 
piiau Iwlati '.Maduratu knifeJ, 78, I J-l 
/ir-irij r hj’I.jJ (Acjeh knife , 152 
fir.u (smal I knife I, £15 
pm iampalan. See pm 
ptingaput ■! bamboo knife I, ISO 
prinn kajn (wooden shield;, ISO 

raga (sharprnrd alakr), 1]4, 322, 
123, 155, 223, 230, 234, 235 

route (rhiiin, , 52, 67, 167 
raair her gttnerdug {chain |, 53 
rnu| (Bftluk Itnife), 153 
rr.'i.'.'T^ I Acjth knife;, J 5L, J j£ 
report (a Flore* spear390 
mdn.1 (sword), 124 

wil/it (sickle}, 329 

rakm (Jiari-LUded knife}. 124, 126 
ialifi (spar), 159, £12 (shield ’, 231 
■aria) (spear), 231 
ftipuluti (broom), 235 

Astfmru (■Celebes 1 ' bkwpipe), 20. r j, 210 llrunclutui57 
if nor ■ ihin-tdaiji'iJ Smualran knife . 
L14. 122, 124. 126 

shields., 23, 152, 153, !06. IBS, 192, 
196. 225-26, 230, 255 

ujti'.m goia (long knife), E52 
spears, 23, 99, 107, 122, 323, 155, 
159, 160, 165, 164, 180. 194, 211 
12, 216, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 

staff and slick, 159 . 164. 224 25, 233 

inmp! iTtvrtdjan blowpipe;, 218 
lumping j lilOWpipe), 234 
uinipiS, Jy.*** lumpiInn 

nsmpitart (blfjwpip", 4Cl. L22, 1J5 J6, 
159. Ififl, 205, 2IS, 234 
iwnriLs, 17, 21. 12*. 164. 225. 235 

tabal 'JiLi11" i i<-iI iiid lin'-liui'iiihfii 

MkkJ, 156, 223, 235 
laJy, Islilc! LO!, 3 30 
lambtTtg (Toradjan shield.), 236 
iitmbuk. See /rf»trftcnjf 
Unmy (shield.-, 192, 196 
Ifld (Chinese single-edge sword i, 206 
Tdjtkjil ). Iitj'imS (long knife), 151-52 
irJ.- 1 !.r>i (cane), 72 
uiifim (long knife;. 152 
ffrrji tada i pepper pump:, 2 18 
tjabamg ; metal truncheon}, 33, 35, 4S, 
76, 172, 398, 205, 206, 239 
ijaluk (Muslim knife), 61 
in di (Matlnrpm knife), “fl 
inch (Bunirtnf blade;. 231 
tiidirpenait >! iht-alh for parang of N'lKrlh 
ESLiruncsc na Lives), 231 
iafnAi-. Her Sabo 

lamkdt (i-jwar), .16, 307, 124, 172. 198 
inmikul j>,i£n i Balinese spear;, 172 
Jnr.’iAafi iadti (ihick-bladed knife), 126, 

tiHnkuk. Sue Sambdi 

j node (shield), 396 
InnjArd (stickj, 36, 223 
tmglai pmiakni (slick], 196 
lt$a (su.iT), 35, 48. L07. 143. 172, 206, 

tvynk (halberd}, 172 
fupa (wooden spr.i r), 230 

rj n.n.'j (bow), 190 



— Geographical Names — 

Ai.LiiEL.iird island, IHO 
Amahilty. Srt KamELrian. 

Ambon, 227, 22% J3fi 
Anatvungei, 114-14 
Apis river, 233 
Aru islands, 40 

Bachan ] sI■.i nd. 2 Ed 

Bali, 22, 2fi, 40, 9S, 165-9B, 230 

Batam Irland, I S8 

Baun Area, 220 

QftlunKrah uilLage, 238 38 

0:it-*-kjru1 vilLii^r, 48 

Barn™, L2, 23, 2 % 40, L99, 223 

Kk :■ r i. t :■ 11 1 11 j , 23 
Br.Ln Ljm. 2B 
[!'i.ikiLiiiiv>:i. : J .H. J46 
bum, 227, 231, 233, 234 
butting Unit, 210 

Celebes,, 21, 2B, 40, iS5. LOT-226. 

22?, 234 
Grram, 227, 231 

Demak, 29 

LVnpasar, 167, 175 r 176, 1B9 
Bay, 210 

Engann island, Itkl 

now*, iso, i as, m, 211 

tialrln, 211 
tielan village, 233 
(jij^'a, 21 I 
(iulf yf Bonr, 210 

I iakuhem. «, 210, 224, 227, 23B 
Haruku island.. 156, 223, 230, 235 
Knvarm, 228 
Hnniletu, 227 

Endrapura; empire. 113-14; river, 

tpn are*, 114 

I rialri H,ira|, Ay IVeat Nf-w Guinea 

Jim hd i McUyu:, | 13 
Java, 17 107, IBS, 238 

Kukfa Bay, 230 

Kalahari Semple, 26 
Kalimantan. &e Fk.miv> 

Kdnniii t iii villAge, 234 
Karang Asam area, 130 
K«Hin, 26. 103 
Kendari Bay, 210 
Kyrinirlii area M l 
Kuanrlaitg hay, 210 

i :Ln 11 >::■!u area, 111, 122 
Laradil uki, 1 '"*3 

LrtSi-i BuJiilas, 33, IBS- 98, 211, 223 


Urohnk 40, », tW p (86, !92,2H 

Ixkto Djr.mggra.nj, j« Prambanan 
temple romp3rT{ 

Mkdura, 72, 95 

MaUrra (M*Uki), 112, I 17, 123, 

[.iin.-il.k district, m 
MitngxLirai area. Jflfi, (09 
‘■[jL:itui Lfi't 
SC.iriado, 2 III 
McikUwai sslaiuLi, 1450 ti ! 

Mtaalmt, JW. 222- 26 
Mindaimn. 222-23 

Molucca*, 23, 2S, 29, 40, 199, 222, 
225, 227-33 
Mula'a, 22B 
Munlii I’ntu, 224 

Nakur, in 
NamlKL, 233 
Nanmharic, 228 
Naaapuci, 229 
Nrjara ri L>-, 366 
Nias island, 3 GO 63. 216 
Niki niki are.*, 366 

Qhi Eihnih. 2 JEM I 

Parlang, 230 
Pakojan area, 21 

Pakinlna^ 20, 112, 314, 155 
Panjalla urira, 220 
Paxxarnman area, 1 1 3 
PaEaiii, 95 
Pur tan, 229 

Plat nan lempira, 26 

Pb4i, J LO 

Pcninrn^o, 63, 99, 106 
I'r.iiiibiLri.ui Unlple r^rriplejs, 23, 26 
t'jiaiigaii, 23, 3 12 
Fiito tkab-i, 160 
Pula Pagt, 160 

Rentnpao, 2]S, 220 

RiflU 1 *-1.irvgga irrhi|ielag^ 1ft, 124, 

3$5 r (60 

Puiii.iii'itL-Ri:mv;, 227 
Sail: j is Land, 190 

Sadjiwm K'inpiv. 26 
.Salabangka island*, 2 10 
hijLmangkA diai/icl, L22 
San gibe aland. 222, 223 
Sanur, 1JJ2 
Sapudi ;- Li i ii.L 107 
Sari Lftmplt*. 26 
Savu St a, 1B5 
S*Ed, 227-2B 
Semarang, 2 3 
Serampt-i area, IL4 
Sialc, 1(3 
SJibmii, 161 
SunfuJue, 169 

Singapore, 20, (12, 123,215 
Singaraja area, (B0 
■H-u3a islands, 200 
Sulawesi. Set Celebes 
ftulu archipelago, 2 1L 
Sumaira, I ft, L09-G4, 105, 198,238 
Sumbu aland, 194, 211 
ftumbnwa aland, 102, 2(1 
ftOTgettenang area, 114 

TaUud island, 222, 223, 225 
Tanimbaj, 40, 227, 231, 234, 236 
Tarfapa, 229 

Tamale, 221, 22ft, 227. 2S0 
Tidcre. 227- 28 
Timor, HI a, 2(1, 214 
iimor-Laut Croup, 235 
Tioro s(ra it, 210 
Tjibra village, 99 
Tobelo, 211 
Toll toll. 210 
Tonwri Ray, 210 
Tongkmg (Tonkin), (0 
Tulrhu, 227 

EJjong I'anah, 132 

Yv’akrdn disLrirt, 213 
Waraloing, 227 
Wal New Gdnn, 40, 227 
Woru r 229 
Wowoni island, 2 10 

Y ueh, 19 

352 INDEX 

— People, Tribes* Races, Deities — 

Aba Bakar Nabumaruri V, 227 
Adj i Sakii, 17 
Ahiolo, 227 
Akfuru, 18,231,£35 
AifKSkFKlcr, Howard, 14 
Aii, r>jafc*i*. 2 Ms 
Ah-hahsi, 6fi 
Alii family, 102 

Alunr irihr, 227 

Amena, J«cph K ii-.i|j iik , 167, 1B9 
Api, Paiigjima PaEu, 238 
Aljrh, 2B 

Acjprtw*, III* 113, 115-17, 151-52, 

I Si 

Ayer Aji, 313 
Ayuiano, 22B-29 

BlllIl‘ 1, Dr. 1 fermatt, 109 

Bin I j an i, Ifan, 5b 

Badui peoplr, 99 

Aaifcole, 22S 

Bajau, 199-200,210-13 

Dandle tribe, 223 

Barinjm, Bjcch, 140 

Batafe, 21, 111, 115, HR. 15S-5B 

Batara-^uru, 110 

Bima (Java-nerr warrior firfls 94 

BinparlKar, 63 

Brito, Jiktrc, 116 

Bugij, IB, 95, 114, 199 205. 230, 211, 

Burnusw, US 

( .Jim |: 11. I!, diaries, 114 
0«latH, III, 123* L24, 158-60 

Chaik, fij 20 

CKi LL, £9 
Chinese, ID 
Chung. Robert, 104 

Daeng Felata, 7S 
Dare, Honings, IH 
Davis, John, 117 

Day iik, Ifl, 21, 21H- Stt dli# Sea 

dr M^rHiaes, Diego, 225 
lUnwangkara, Ida Dagos Qlcn. ISA 
Difdjoatmodjo, R., M.S,. 68 
Dokt, T. Barung. 218 
Dutch, 2 % 114, 175,214,213, 230 

Effcndi, 104 

f'el Hun, 20 

EJadjah Mada, 20 
Go, Dr, Viuw Licm, 109 
Guan Tjai. 32 

Hayam Wunik, 28 
Hayes, W„ M0 
llrivai, Dr., 205 
Holloway, Cities, 3 l { “ 

Huaulu pt^iple, 231 
Hubudim. Hiuviii, 72 

Japaurae, 30 

Kailas. Rad jab, 730 
Kathcua, 227-28 
Kamarullah, Baluk, 23B 
KanuiUn ; warrior-god), 94 

Karim, Hvisin, 239 

Karjacli-hrama SpjilH'ht, 95 

Kaurlinya. 110 

K,n Tamainjtgutiftam, 112 

Kerl^aiegwo, ?B .l khan, 28 

Kiai. hlrLs-, 230 

K i Ngabuhi Soerodiw i rjc, 60 

Kw-ee Tang Kiam, Jib 

Laxnpong people. Ill, 122 
Lancaster,James, tl7 
La no (ribe, 23$ 

Laiupamn. 228 
Lrimree, 220, 231 
Lricuili, 253 
Lout, 122 

Lir, rjicnjin, 206 
LiiJiiJ.ii, king ...I A1 snot, 220- 20 
Lumtnu'ui, 223 
Lutao tribes, 222 

Maharaja Duija, I £3 
Miiloa, Sitanari, 228 
Makassarae, 199 205, 210, 211, 214 
Malay. IS 

Miuigatla-liuLang, 118 
Mai to Polo, ZB, I 10 
Marisa, M., 227 
Marra, Bagimda, 238 
Malatulla, 230 

1J4DEX 253 

M*r*ngk*W 23* m, HI * I15, 110, 
m, ™ h (52, 2(15, 230 

M-tTLil.ui^ KarmiEnEL, 17. 27 
Miller, Owl*, L 19 
MiMIUCjI.I. 23 

M'izdu. Muna-jj MaLin, Mfi 
Miiiihu, King oTTiwtwti, 223 

Xtrui, R, M. 1 man kiui,ij].ia, fj I -CIS 
Nio, Moch pjeti. £30 

Dug. "Billing," ILH 
Drang 1 Abu rig, 1 22 
Dm ns Gugu, t11 
Qrang Kubu, III 

Pak Gunung {aEi-ai Rigsgt T, Mode], 

Pak Swro, 60 

FrrapAfciw-tiiatapg, 11! 

Pbpg Tiku* £10 

Kaihlm SihaEL, 122 
Rai.Li.Mi Falih, 20 
Ractrli Wild joyft, 20 

Ibrahim. 11C 
lu.url, 111 
Mukutiehe, 2£7 
Rasj^n, W. H„ Bfi 
R**d. 140 ifjbe, 223 
lUgDg, Ida M;uh', 175 
Ktjuift ill, 121-22 
Rothplcti, W. a 22 
Rufitid, Pali Ibrahim, 227-20 

Kahuiian, 227-2R 
Said, Harum, 140 
Sakai (SenocJ, 18, 213 
Saiunrim, 02 
SarungalEo, V. K.„ 218 
Saruiigii, T. S,, 218 

Sea Day aka, 20 
Scmang, 10 
SSahiib* Az.hmfirf, 2HJ 
-Sbo ftun Seng, E63 
Siiawani* 228 
-Si Kiiim li no-, L13 
SocdaTjanio, Lieut. C<ri. ? 48 
.Srwlcsmnno, Dr., 213 
Soeronagoro, Hachrund, 50 
Sod-pud*, I MS 
Sri Turi Ruwana, I 12 
S'uddbMina, HO 


Ala-etldhi-ihah. I 1 ? 

Alhf, 111 

Ibrahim* 111, Lib 
Muda, El7, 122 
Mohammed Stuah, Ell 
StiKi, 13 

Swctja, Made* 176-70 

Earn brerihers, E04 
I an Chia* 19 
Thai* 18 

Tjandra* Made. 132 

Tjo* Krk Killing, 84 

Tjorra, Abdul L-atief, 238 

To Ijoinang, 214 

Fombtilu rribc, 223 

Tong I long Liong* 208 

Tonwwing inbr, 223 

rnnu;« iribe, 221 

Tgturfmboiin tnbe, £23 

Turarija. 18, 21,1 w, 210* £ 14-22, 215 

Tjip PHo Liang Kic, 206 

Turipir, 210 

Twarihia, £20 

IFfr-Riml, 229 30, 20 27, $4 
Wiimals tribe, 227 

a&4 INDEX 

MmiuI Ail' 

The linimun Latent for Wftirtnioudy Wendtn^ jhortjpnal «yln with the ut> (if 
the Auill mainland hat five f«i [i^iIjiiic jfii dial Mt dllKM1|( die mml fjKiiuling 

in ihe woeliJ Pmmtd iai tiitm*. dame. and in—ai wdl ai ill fitua(. tribal hw, and 
nt>Thdc^'—the fijilm); Am ol ihe Indoneoan jidupr Lipo pby * OcrttnJ lute- m 
tihktneiiAn cu Ft lire 

TV liripwi I'ifkfinttArU of Indenrii* «> I and well 

Ineat* Srtl Murk AeOI Itttowned udioUt and niartul art* WJehtT [Jottri R Dratfpr*— 
prmiiko fmtpirhcfsvhf mtrodiKdi hi lo (hr loplmtii’aied form* rtf empty-Fund t:mi> 
hat and myriad um{UC (hat fhamctcfirtr Indcmnun fighting tiyic* I Hwipef 

tlnwi hovi ihe l«*itn jtr related lo (hen mainland rmHim, (inwtdn i htiuirkal ODfltna 
tor ihrif development, n rtd JeKlihe die t~ timbal methods of Mffuujjik jfraii 
Alefimi headlinnteii, and ihe ( rbtTH ptfifo With d¥rf llhi'trxtiom„ 

Ilu llr.yvm JhJ l lyfOrri^ Am /*.^rrrm u m indnpcm^lde JiUlUMI to 

any martial iitHt library 

I Joim I. I T ,ii. ,:l i ■ Jii Dttr e 4 the world* itadiiijt audvmuiri on (he 

WrJpoifti and fi^htm^ art* rtf A(W Lkeiltfd in Japan « a tejehet of multiple rturnal ait*, 
lir wTinfr profWiy oil the tmbjen. lie it ihe aulhftr of Sh*hFni Ijfiun fang-fit, J#ir 
fvmiTRfhjijfppn. and itw ui;~*ii|!ui!K Kunile m'tio 


**rm lutUepublistVng torn 

Crimed n Strvpa&oia 

716 1